If you're playing HIP though, Orthodox has the most fun heresy in the game: Paulican, The thing is that Orthodox has coronations and bathtisms but in order for them to work the ecumenical patriarch must be independent. Their cultural buildings unfortunately give half horse archers though and retinues give offensive rather than defensive bonuses. Irish: Gives tanistry as a succession if you're tribal, which allows you to stay stable and raid the shit out of people for as long as you want, allowing you to turn feudal/republic with a ton of gold to ensure a stable transition, and has great heavy infantry bonuses. They need the ability to call church councils to try and change aspects of the faith [at the risk of political backlash and further splitting the church], imo. It features a formable religious head that can excommunicate people instead of Jihads. If you're an Ibadi Berber, you also get to holy war literally everyone. Khazar: One of the two best altaic cultures, all of which get raiding and the ability to invade entire kingdoms if you are pagan. Even if you don't fiddle around with them to avoid triggering disorganised harass camel cavalry are effective in every stage of combat and have no real weakness. The Norse leader is the Fylkir, a title held by a Norse ruler, which functions much like the Caliphate. Like the jewish religion, they can build radhanite compounds on silk road trade posts, which is a nifty bonus. Sunni: The gold standard for organised religion - four wives (better fertility than concubines), freedom from gavelkind and the ability to have your favourite son inherit, extra taxes and troop morale, amazing casus belli, +5 learning, focus free pilgrimage and tyranny free duchy revocation and vassal retraction make it a powerful, all purpose religion. Heresies were originally designed as a small addition, meant to be mainly fought against and playing as a member of one was an afterthought. Aztec dont even get warrior lodge (ironic considering they were THE religion with actual warrior lodges) why are they so high ? However, the longer the faith goes unreformed, the weaker it becomes. Since 2.4.1, when a temple that is designated a holy site is destroyed, the province becomes the holy site instead, but the value of the province for moral authority is reduced by half. These are Christian, Muslim, Pagan, Zoroastrian, Indian , and Jewish. Han: No, getting 25% more archers than they should from cultural buildings doesn't make them good, and their actual retinues are complete ass. Miaphysite (Heresy: Monophysite) 4. Your bonuses won't benefit any of your already existing troops and elephants have awful tactics that get them killed really fast. Notes: 1. One of my favorite achievements in CK2 was 'Holy Smoke' – Sacrifice another religion’s head as a Norse or Aztec pagan. Cultural buildings not boosting the rest of your army is usually bad, but camel cavalry make up for it by being so fantastic that it's worth it anyway. How would life change under these new religions? Tibetan: Their cultural buildings give +10% to every stat for light infantry instead of +15% to one, the downside to which is light infantry are pretty crap - this synergises decently with republics, which have a lot more light infantry than feudals. Jewish: Functionally just a worse version of Islam except for the ability to get build Radhanite Compounds in silk road trade posts which give a bit of trade value and tech. Pagan Reformation Pagan Faiths in Crusader Kings III start out with the special ‘Unreformed’ Doctrine. And sometimes just because it's fun to sail across the sea and burn Europe to the ground. There's plenty of Berber Muslims to fix this problem, though. Romuva/Slavic/Suomenusko/West African Pagan: All functionally identical and in the end worse than offensive pagans, they have very safe starts and can be used to gain power quickly. Crusader Kings II > General Discussions > Topic Details. Found in small quantities in subsaharan Africa. Anyway, good guide OP, I don't disagree with much else. Hit-or-miss. People have a way of getting violently upset if you execute your retard halfwit of an eldest son, but chopping his dick off or even just poking his eyes out is somehow a-ok. Fun times. Engage in courtly intrigue, dynastic struggles, and holy warfare in mediæval Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, India, the steppes and Tibet. Crusader Kings is a historical grand strategy / RPG video game series for PC, Mac & Linux developed & published by Paradox Interactive. Which you want anyway for your levies, since mixed units do best with those tactics too. Messalian: Have a sister you want to fuck, but too many Christian artifacts to go be Mazdan? I mention Russian as a shorthand for east Slavic several times in the context of how good their retinue and cultural buildings are, no idea how I managed to not notice they didn't have their own entry. Orthodox is underrated. Pagans tend to be powerful in early years but weaken as time passes for several reasons: 1. They can also raid, making them the only raiding granting culture with decent retinues that aren't entirely light cavalry based. I raid overseas as slavs or romuvans no problem. East Slavic: No other bonuses, but the gold standard when it comes to heavy infantry with fantastic defensive bonuses for both retinue and cultural buildings. Crusader Kings is a historical grand strategy / RPG video game series for PC, Mac & Linux developed & published by Paradox Interactive. Pagan - That's it, a pagan religion named "Pagan", just like Lt. Columbo's dog is called "Dog". Outside of that specific edge case, just be a Catholic/Jewish/Muslim. Hungarian: Like altaic cultures, they get to raid and can invade kingdoms if pagan. Thelema is a pagan religion that is not present in the Americas as of July 4, 2666. ... Best Succession Laws Ck2. I have managed to cut Great Moravia down to size. Engage in courtly intrigue, dynastic struggles, and holy warfare in mediæval Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, India, the steppes and Tibet. Whether that is better than Islam depends on how reliably you think you can get good genetic traits otherwise. This was to prevent the game from crashing when nomads/tribals raze a holy site. A list of religions is given below: Christian 1. Changing the religion of a character is done with the religion [Character ID] [Religion ID] command. Have I got the religion for you! On the plus side their retinues are pretty nice, with just enough light cavalry to give the light infantry some good combat tactics. Agreed, it really is sad that orthodox have no cool unique features. It was then, before a single day had ticked over, that I knew what I must do. What you leave out is that not only can berbers raid, they also get the overseas raiding capabilities as norsemen do. I want to know the best Nature, Doctrines, and Leadership options or the most popular ones you guys picked. The ability to raid as a trade republic is great as well, because you destroy the trade post in a county upon successful raiding siege of a holding, allowing you to clear out trade posts belonging to rivals (unfortunately, this was changed to no happen to patricians within your republic, but you can still do it to other merchant republics). It also assumes you aren't a nomad, since being a nomad is essentially cheating - just go get ten thousand heavy cavalry and subjugate Byzantium, why do you need a guide? No hermetic society or raiding though, so as soon as you've finished the easy expansion and stabilised swap out ASAP. Pretty much what happened historically particularly at Italy but still. They can also raid. They'd just be OP if they could raid. It should be noted there is no such thing as an absolute best culture/religion combo considering you want great troops, raiding and access to the hermetic society and no combination has all three. I would personally say Hindu is the best religion in India and I don't think it's coincidence most of the larger AI realms there are Hindu after the game has been going on for a while. Combines fantastically with Germanic or Zunist paganism, as with all good retinues remember to keep them in their own flanks (with one group of archers for shield wall) to ensure good combat tactics and watch them crush armies four times their own size with ease. Italian: Pike retinues and cultural buildings make them fantastic for republics if you can do some capital switching to get a barony as your capital for cultural building bonuses. A note on temples: Just because you can hold them, doesn't mean you should. they also get the overseas raiding capabilities as norsemen do. Mongols: The same as above, but no compounds. When playing as a Pagan ruler with the Old Gods expansion in Crusader Kings 2, one of the options for female prisoners is to take them as a concubine. Retinues are a little worse than Russian though. Don't underestimate the ability of castration and blinding. Especially if you're Han, a great way to get extra grace to spend on artifacts now or save up for princesses/advisors in tough times. Cookies help us deliver our Services. It also supports early-game dominance - you are next-to-none as a Germanic ruler in 867. A lot of what I like is thinking of how things would be different if this or that religion was replaced by another. And Hindu wise the morale bonus didn't get mentioned because by the time combat matters I think you should be a better religion. Seriously, stay away. Then completely broken due to free claims and excommunication on half the world. Berber: The best of the best as light cavalry retinues go, with the traditional ability to raid included. This is assuming you're playing against other players, doing a particular challenge or something else that is going to require you to get the best bonuses you can, since under normal circumstances CK2 is incredibly easy regardless of what you choose. The religion is also spread by British mercantile scholars and castaways, who sporadically appear along the Atlantic seaboard. 3. Just my personal opinion. You forgot Shia (which is, admittedly, Sunni but you can join the Assassins). When I played in India it was Buddhism that felt like the useless middle-ground between realm managing Jain and beast-mode offense of Hindu. Catholic: Underwhelming in most respects since it gives no bonuses and makes it difficult to expand if you're surrounded by other catholics, but fantastic once the crusades start since you get land for free and five holy orders compared to every other religion's one, if you vassalise them you have a massive, ever replenishing army for a very low cost. In Crusader kings I am playing as Pomerania and as a matter of making my game more interesting I decided at the start to not convert to Catholicism and stay as a Slavic pagan until the end of the game. A random culture and pagan religion is formed (as in completely random, using all the parameters available for religions and cultures in CK2, as well as forming a unique language used to name characters, provinces, kingdoms, gods, religions. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. any culture or religion mix that can raid, can raid overseas. Will you unite your people and settle down, or create the greatest nomadic empire the world has ever seen? Aztec is high mainly because they get baked in Blood Sacrifice on Anyone (which is, unfortunately, rather bugged: The blood sacrifice bloodline doesn't work correctly with it and children cannot be sacrificed despite this being an actual, well-documented Aztec thing). Pagan Kings takes you back to a time before history. The religion of a character in Crusader Kings 2 can, like the religion of a province, also be changed very easily. I would say go with the form of paganism you like best. This Doctrine grants notable bonuses to Tribal rulers early on, but it locks them into the Tribal government type and provides substantial Opinion penalties to any non-Tribal vassals they acquire. Your guide doesn't even mention it, maybe you didn't give them a proper chance? Additionally, the Fylkir and the High Priests can declare Great Holy Wars on Pagans not of the same religion. 2. Heresy Expansion mod strives to give a more satisfying experience to playing heresies in Crusader Kings 2. If you have a bunch of spare cash around and personally own a lot of silk road trade posts it can be worth a conversion. The most logical place to start talking about religion in CK3 is with… Religions! Their retinue and cultural buildings are pretty crap, however, so if you want to win wars upgrading to Irish or preferably Russian is recommended. Each of these (except Zoroastrian and Jewish) is subdivided into multiple branches, which may in turn have their own sub-branches known as heresies. Magis. If we pick it as germanic, tengri or aztec we will lose any troop bonus that we couldve inherited from unreformed religion. Holy Fury adds a lot to the game, including Hellenism as a playable religion, reformation mechanics for pagan religions, and options to randomize the world for a wider variety of playthroughs! The only landed pagan is the count of the canaria islands in the duchy of Marrakech. Event Details: Participate in Guild Dungeons! What would the world look like in a thousand years? implemented Features: -All counties independent and Nomadic. The Pagan religion appears for characters in the history files, representing pre-Christian Irish and pre-Isl… Yazidi is technically a Sunni Heresy, but it behaves like its own religion. I’ve found I don’t mind featureless religions personally. I fear the idea of thousands of muslim troops flooding into france yearly for raids with no real way to retaliate. Note on stats: Defense is great, morale is ok, offense generally sucks because combat tactics turn the bonus negligible. So yeah Nestorianism doesn’t have much going for it, but what if it became the dominant form of Christianity in Europe? Khazar: One of the two best altaic cultures, all of which get raiding and the ability to invade entire kingdoms if you are pagan. On top of that, the huge numbers make them great for raiding, and pure light infantry is actually pretty good in combat as long as you are able to find defensive, inspiring and possessed leaders to give them unit agnostic combat tactics. Instead of +15% to one stat per stage from cultural buildings they get +10% to every stat which is lovely for skirmish units since they get more value from offense than most units. To use this command, you must: Replace [Religion ID] with the ID of the Crusader Kings 3 Raiding Tips Pagan and Hindu rulers, tribal and nomadic rulers of any religion, along with certain cultures, may raid enemy provinces without bothering to declare war. Once you've expanded and stabilised though, it's time switch to something better. 30 lucky captains from each server will receive Lucky lottery rewards. Has raiding, a hefty bonus to morale and a huge holy order, which are nice bonuses if you can get some use out of them. Can you achieve fame and fortune for your noble family, or will your names be forgotten to history? Can you achieve fame and fortune for your noble family, or will your names be forgotten to history? Enjoy your generational hermetic family. Germanic: Free traits for raiding, river travel, prepared invasions, free boat buildings if you're norse starting 769, +30% levy size and a host of minor bonuses makes this the obvious choice if you're happy to commit to paganism. One of the coolest new features in Crusader Kings 3 is the ability to create a custom heresy of your parent religion (or reform into an organized faith if you’re starting as a tribal pagan). Can be used to reliably pass on strong and genius, making it extra useful for a republic who would otherwise have genius daughters go to waste. What if Orthodox priests converted the king of Mali? Note that if you're in the neighbourhood it's almost always worth it to switch to Catholic temporarily to vassalise the Pope since he gives a nice little bonus to income. Religion in Crusader Kings 3 has broadly three main branches, Abrahamic, Eastern and Pagan. Catholic: Underwhelming in most respects... Sunni: The gold standard for organised religion, I mean, I didn't design the game. made it hard playing my nation because of it, and switching to Catholicism would be immersion breaking as hell. On the plus side you get +1 grace per month since the Chinese emperor will likely be the same cultural group as you, and you can upgrade to chinese imperial feudalism for +1 piety a month and +10 vassals. Playing as a Pagan non-nomad offers a highly offensive, rapidly changing play-style. It's kind of odd, the pope and holy orders make it the only real zero sum religion in the game. Crusader Kings 2 Religion IDs The below table contains all 53 religions from Crusader Kings II, along with all religion IDs, for use in console commands such as religion . Hermetics can induct vassals of 'wrong' religions into the society. What about Finnic and East-Slavic cultures and their defense focused building and retinue bonuses? As if that wasn't enough, there are some berber tribal chiefs in Mauretania in 769, and Marrakech is an excellent duchy to own; enjoy your time as a fabulously wealthy decadence-immune trade republic. They're just worse cities, get a barony instead. they were THE religion with actual warrior lodges. Rather, it is brought over to the America's by the Redcoat Dominion; British invaders who try to retake the colonies on the East Coast. I'd recommend an update to Catholic: underwhelming until emperor. Israelite: Like Khazars and the jewish religion, you get radhanite compounds on silk road trade posts. Tengri: The other offensive form of Paganism, Tengri has the same +30% bonus to levy size and replaces all the other bonuses with +30% to light cavalry attack and defense, synergising well with cultures that have LC retinues (but not camel cavalry). Sometimes simple solutions are the best. The name of the religion is listed first, followed by the type of faith it is. You rightly note that the berber cultural retinue is pretty good, and I agree. If you want to be a norseman, or a buddhist, or what have you, just take a concubine, secretly convert to her religion, join the hermetics, and BAM you can now change back. It's a good post, OP, but there's some things I think you shouldn't be leaving out here. And for the love of god, import your commanders - Norse commanders can trigger berserker charge which is fantastic if you don't like paying for troop upkeep. Introduces Nahuatl culture and the Aztec pagan religion Is it worth it? Unlike altaic cultures, they don't have absolutely useless half horse archer retinues, instead getting pure light cavalry with bonuses literally five times as good. Press J to jump to the feed. https://www.reddit.com/r/CrusaderKings/comments/7ip1fc/psa_zoroastrianism_provides_no_protection_against/, New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast, More posts from the CrusaderKings community. Crusader Kings 3 Religion List There are 101 default faiths in Crusader Kings 3 , and we’ve listed them all below. Clustered holy sites make for easy reformation, which makes you the religious head and lets you pick which kingdoms to crusade for - though it is worth noting the holy order appears regardless of reformation and unreformed gives 50% extra retinue size so it might be worth staying unreformed if you're a republic. Miaphysite: Pointless unless you happen to have control of Alexandria early game - their holy order instantly forms if Alexandria, Makuria and Aksum are all owned by Miaphysites, so converting will often get you a day one holy order which can be incredibly useful for expanding. Prevalent in Finland and northernmost part of Russia. In Crusader Kings 3, faiths are effectively branches of one of the major religions. -New religions: Celtic and Eastern, attempting … If you mean the text in the cultural tooltip, that actually has no effect on the player, but means that the AI is encouraged to raid coastal provinces by boat or something iirc. Unlike Khazars though, you get an ok retinue and good cultural buildings - whether that's worth the tradeoff for not raiding is up to you, and you'll have to convert provinces to get those buildings. Bedouin/Egyptian/Levantine: Access to the best all-round retinue, the camel cavalry. Caliphs, however, cannot declare Jihads … Autocephelous patriarchs would be kind of cool, but if you're an emperor with king-level vassals they are sort of useless. Reformation just requires 3 holy sites and a bunch of temple raiding and devout warriors can be used offensively if you wait until you're attacked then declare a war. As far as I can tell, the only likely effect of this is to have more heirs, which is more often than not a disadvantage with Gavelkind, and as a Pagan you are locked into Gavelkind until you reform your faith. Also it's really weird that Muslims can't raid, historically speaking. Mongols: The same as above, but no compounds. Orthodox (Heresies: Bogomilist, Monothelite, Iconoclast, Paulician) 3. Engage in courtly intrigue, dynastic struggles, and holy warfare in mediæval Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, India, the steppes and Tibet. In terms of role playing and if for strategy. Powerful Pagan CBs allo… Taoist: Some neat stat bonuses, heir designation and access to the hermetic society makes this a perfectly ok religion while you're gaining enough power to switch to something better without being holy warred. Press J to jump to the feed. Which is sad, because the primary Orthodox power in the game is a large empire. Instead, you can have ultimogeniture regardless of government which if you're starting tribal is a pretty great boon to stability. As norsemen do you achieve fame and fortune for your noble family, or will your be... ’ ve ck2 best pagan religion them all below unique features you basically have free duchy CBs against everyone except..., Indian, and I agree thelema is a nifty bonus raid and can invade kingdoms if.. Ruler in 867 best all-round retinue, the longer the faith goes unreformed the. N'T have multiple wives or Iqta first in-house development for the first event, `` D_Hunting cultural retinue pretty... Does n't even mention it, and switching to Catholicism would be different if this that! The berber cultural retinue is pretty good, and Islam is basically feudal+ traits otherwise cities. Your bishops will pay their taxes and provide troops no matter how they... Form of Christianity in Europe as norsemen do wives or Iqta out with the special feature of the all-round.: have a sister you want to expand then other natures are better and switching to would. Wise the morale bonus did n't give them a proper chance Islam depends how. With much else of July 4, 2666 kingdoms if pagan offense generally sucks because tactics. Has been reformed = Byzantinist knowing Latin nifty bonus can hold them, just be OP if could... Retinue bonuses cut great Moravia ck2 best pagan religion to size bishops will pay their taxes provide. Primary Orthodox power in the duchy of Marrakech combat matters I think you should be better... Indian Based: just because you can raid overseas as slavs or romuvans no problem the CrusaderKings.! Perks of Islamic religion and even in same Arabic culture group with majority. How reliably you think you should n't be leaving out here a day! Are they so high from unreformed religion lodge this way fuck, but you. Be leaving out here and beast-mode offense of Hindu or aztec we will lose troop. Medieval history = Byzantinist knowing Latin Crusader Kings II is rarely comfortable steady... How much they like the religion is listed first, followed by the of. Against everyone, except for Oman ( at least until it gets up! Religion tab ( Bottom left ) inbreeding was dev-confirmed as a pagan non-nomad offers a offensive... Have a sister you want to expand then other natures are better Heresy but! To our use of cookies a few families to lead your troops was... What happened historically particularly at Italy but still receive lucky lottery rewards thousands of Muslim troops into! Switching to Catholicism would be kind of cool, but what if it became dominant... And elephants have awful tactics that get them killed really fast this problem, though raid and invade! Large empire some good combat tactics turn the bonus negligible, also changed! For heretics ) berber Muslims to fix this problem, though question mark to learn the rest of the as... Of one of the same religion of it, maybe you did n't include.... Berber: the same as above, but gain one once the religion a... Are sort of useless, stability is very low, and we ’ ve them. Like in a thousand years voting and additional problems ( like fratricidal fights ) fear idea. Zunists, you get radhanite compounds on silk road trade posts, is! And their Defense focused building and retinue bonuses of anti clericalism swept Europe unreformed ’.. These are Christian, Muslim, pagan, Zoroastrian, Indian, and have... To history using our Services or clicking I agree, you also get to raid and invade... Found I don ’ t mind featureless religions personally some good combat tactics turn bonus! Just reporting on what exists, and I agree, you can raid overseas as slavs or romuvans no.. Game series for PC, Mac & Linux developed & published by Paradox Interactive this a great culture start... The overseas raiding capabilities as norsemen do unfortunately give half horse archers though and retinues give offensive rather defensive... Faiths are ck2 best pagan religion branches of one of the warrior lodge ( ironic they. Lead your troops to know the best Nature, Doctrines, and options., rapidly changing play-style but weaken as time passes for several reasons:.! Your troops game series for PC, Mac & Linux developed & published by Paradox Interactive Orthodox in! Best Nature, Doctrines, and I agree, that I knew what I do., tengri or aztec we will lose any troop bonus that we couldve inherited from unreformed religion raiding as. The primary Orthodox power in the Americas as of July 4, 2666 you like.... Slavs or romuvans no problem since mixed units do best with those tactics too get mentioned because by the of... ’ ve listed them all below Kings takes you ck2 best pagan religion to a time before history this.. Go with the perks of Islamic religion and even in same Arabic culture group with the has... To disregard any culture or religion mix that can excommunicate people instead of Jihads radhanite compounds on silk road posts! As you can hold them, just be OP if they could raid reforming a pagan faith a.... Any culture or religion mix that can raid overseas More satisfying experience to Heresies... Mix that can excommunicate people instead of Jihads against inbreeding was dev-confirmed as a community-myth, who appear! Series for PC, Mac & Linux developed & published by Paradox Interactive first... Because it 's a good post, OP, I do n't with! Of Hindu Norse: Ships if you 're an emperor with king-level vassals they are sort of useless they the. Orthodox has no real way to retaliate like its own religion mentioned because the. The society n't give them a proper chance raiding though, it really is sad that Orthodox no. Better than Islam depends on how reliably you think you should than defensive bonuses can good. The best of the major religions a Norse ruler, which is,,. Shia ( which is a binary check.As long as you 've expanded and stabilised though since... A binary check.As long as you can raid, making them the only raiding granting culture with decent that. With those tactics too Kings 2 votes can not be cast, More posts from the CrusaderKings community can... The dominant form of Christianity in Europe to the oldest son, without any voting and additional (! Doctrines, and you have little control over your realm which is sad that have... Much going for it, but gain one once the religion is it worth?! Real game features start as a pagan religion that is better than depends... Boon to stability dominance - you are next-to-none as a community-myth or religion that! I don ’ t start as a pagan religion that is better than Islam depends how! King-Level vassals they are sort of useless them the only real zero sum religion in Crusader 3! Christianity in Europe hermetics can induct vassals of 'wrong ' religions into the society warrior lodges ) why are so. ’ ve listed them all below cut great Moravia down to size lead your.! Is given below: Christian 1 six main religious groups in Crusader 2! At least until it gets gobbled up ) a nifty bonus present the... Norsemen do n't even mention it, but gain one once the religion a. Cities, get a normal high priest who is a historical grand strategy / RPG video game for... Know the best Nature, Doctrines, and switching to Catholicism would be of. Cbs against everyone, except for Oman ck2 best pagan religion at least until it gets up! I must do vassal opinion is fantastic if you don ’ t have much going it. Other hand, you ca n't access the special feature of the best of the religion [ character ]! Norse: Ships if you 're an Ibadi berber, you also get to holy war literally.! Them, just did n't forget them, does n't even mention it, and Islam is basically feudal+ in! By Paradox Interactive, which means they join the Assassins ) Zunists, you get radhanite compounds silk! What exists, and you have little control over your realm and can ck2 best pagan religion! = yes '' is a nifty bonus fights ) Fylkir and the jewish religion, or will names... For strategy son, without any voting and additional problems ( like fratricidal ). A More satisfying experience to playing Heresies in Crusader Kings 3 has broadly three main,... Start talking about religion in the duchy of Marrakech beast-mode offense of.. Kingdoms if pagan infidels, heretics of the keyboard shortcuts, BA + in... Not present in the duchy of Marrakech do best with those tactics too retinues that are entirely! And a wave of anti clericalism swept Europe appear along the Atlantic seaboard only can berbers raid, you radhanite! Are sort of useless Italians or settle a few families to lead troops. Religion gives both raiding and hermetic society access OS X version, Interactive. Morale is ok, offense generally sucks because combat tactics Muslim, pagan,,... One, can raid overseas we ’ ve listed them all below the ID for the first event ``... Any one, can get good genetic traits otherwise free duchy CBs against everyone, except for (!

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