Between 1950 and 1990, 12 million people migrated from East to West (Fassmann and Münz 1992), many of them to Germany. 2011, see www.nidi.nl for more information on the MIMOSA and IMEM projects). It includes Austria, Germany, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, and Denmark. The increased co-operation within the European Union and the Council of Europe on matters related to immigration and asylum requires the publication of theoretical and empirical research. Greece was the last country to transition from an emigration into an immigration country. Spain, for example, registered the return of 451,000 citizens during this period, of which 94 % had resided in another EU country (Barou 2006). Furthermore, we examined the demographic characteristics of these migration flows as well as the characteristics of residing migrants across Europe using recent data. Las emigraciones Españolas a Europa en el siglo XX: Algunas cuestiones a debater. Figure. Lastly, migration is often not limited to moving from Country A to Country B but may involve several successive destinations. For the former colonial powers France, Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, and Portugal, most immigrants, and their descendants have ties to former colonies in Africa, the Americas, and Asia. In the last section of this chapter, we differentiate between intra-EU mobility of European citizens and migration within and towards the EU of third-country nationals, as these groups are subject to different legislation. However, Britain is not leaving Europe and there will remain s… Estimates of the numbers of individuals that left Italy, Spain, Greece, and Portugal between 1950 and 1970 vary from 7 to 10 million (Okólski, In this same phase, numbers of asylum applications started to rise in Europe (especially in the 1980s and after the fall of the Berlin Wall; Hansen, The 1992 Maastricht Treaty’s abolition of borders considerably eased intra-EU movements (see also next sections of this chapter). However, whereas these percentages are high, absolute numbers are generally low. Despite the European Union's high expectations for effectively resolving migration-related challenges, it has become clear that the policy-making structure in place today does little to support this goal. De Valk, H. A. G., & Díez Medrano, J. The crisis mainly seems to have affected intra-European migration, with a decrease in overall free movement within the EU and with the peripheral countries hardest hit by the crisis—particularly Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain—again becoming emigration countries (Castles et al. The first period was characterized by labour migration and a favourable stance towards migration, covering the years from the beginning of the bilateral guest worker agreements until the oil crisis. Those early populations of hunters were small and transient, as successive ice ages made the land periodically uninhabitable. Many fail to realize this but Germany’s attitude to immigration has changed for the better because it has been pushed to do so by the EU. Until 1988, most of these Aussiedler migrated from Poland (Dietz 2006; Münz and Ulrich 1998). European citizens, moreover, are entitled to move freely within the EU without the need for a visa, and hence may face fewer institutional barriers in migration trajectories. At the same time, the process of decolonization gave rise to considerable migration flows towards Europe’s (former) colonial powers. One of the main reasons was the Cold War division of Europe which severely restricted East-West labour mobility. Factors affecting family transitions to adulthood in Sweden. 4. In addition to migration from outside Europe this chapter pays ample attention to patterns of mobility within Europe. Finally it is crucial to realize that categorization of migrants into certain migration motives is rather difficult as very often multiple different reasons overlap (see, e.g., Gilmartin and Migge 2015; Santacreu et al. The fight against pollution intensifies in the 1970s. The 1971 and 1975 figures include children born in the UK, with both parents born abroad. Levrau, F., Piqueray, E., Goddeeris, I., & Timmerman, C. (2014). 2011). 45.55.157.228. Tremblay, K. (2005). This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Integration Processes and Policies in Europe The EU was created by the Maastricht Treaty, which entered into force on November 1, 1993. Dietz, B., & Kaczmarczyk, P. (2008). Transition from emigration to immigration: Is it the destiny of modern European societies? It comprises a common asylum and immigration policy, a policy towards nationals of third countries and a common external border control (Art. Although governments initially tried to limit family migration, this met little success (Castles et al. Bilateral agreements were signed with Turkey (1961), Morocco (1963), Portugal (1964), Tunisia (1965), and Yugoslavia (1968). Many of these (return) migrants were juridically considered citizens; estimates suggest that between 1940 and 1975 the number of people of European origin returning from the colonies was around 7 million (Bade 2003). Fassmann, H., & Münz, R. (1992). Straddling our period demarcations we discuss these migrations patterns here, as they started in this period. This chapter outlines the general developments of migration within and towards Europe as well as patterns of settlement of migrants since the 1950s. Policies aiming to control and reduce migration, however, transformed rather than stopped migration. (2001). Fact Sheets on the European Union - 18/06/2018 4 With the adoption of the Tampere Programme in October 1999, the European Council decided that the common European system should be implemented in two phases: the A migration system emerged whereby peripheral—especially Southern European—countries supplied workers to North-Western European countries. Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 2.5 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/) which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. The top-five countries of origin during this period were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (836,000), Romania (400,000), Turkey (356,000), Iraq (211,000), and Afghanistan (155,000) (ibid.). Th… (2014). The history of the 20th century Europe is characterized by great social, political and economic changes, and the construction of a common European society. In the Treaties … Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle as permanent residents or naturalized citizens. 2006). European countries had been making war against one another since the Middle Ages. The end of this third period might be the economic crisis, which so far seems to have affected mainly intra-European mobility patterns. In sum, patterns of intra-EU migration are becoming increasingly diverse. These interactive maps on MPI’s Data Hub display populations of refugees and asylum seekers by origin and country of residence. Bijwaard, G. (2010). For Spain, non-European migrants mainly originate from Morocco and Latin American countries, and Spanish migrants emigrate to Latin American countries such as Argentina and Venezuela (INE 2014). European governments became aware that migrant populations were likely to remain on their territory, and they slowly began to develop integration policies. Two bloody wars had been fought on the continent. The second group is made up of countries where more than half of emigration moves are directed towards other European countries, and immigration is mostly non-European. History of the European Union. (2006). Ryan, L., & Mulholland, J. The Italian government, for example, considered the labour migration programmes of North-Western European countries as a way to ‘get rid of the unemployed and to deprive the socialist and communist parties of potential voters’ (Hoerder 2002, 520). However, reasons for origin countries to support emigration went beyond the economic. The UK Government's proposals on immigration are set out in the December 2018 White Paper on The UK 's Future Skills-Based Immigration System , which draws on prior recommendations from the Migration Advisory Committee ( MAC ). We looked at both immigration and emigration in the European context to do sufficient justice to the dynamic nature of migration. part of European history comes quite naturally for migrations up to the early 20th century. Since the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, Parliament has been actively involved, as a full co-legislator, in the adoption of new legislation dealing with both irregular and regular immigration. As a result, they did not dispose of well-developed immigration legislation and entrance control systems. the annual number of immigrants from any given country to 3 percent of the. Third-country nationals, moreover, move to geographically close countries, for example, from Germany and Italy to Austria, from Estonia and Sweden to Finland, from the Czech Republic and Germany to Poland, from Austria and the Czech Republic to Slovakia, and from Denmark and Germany to Sweden (ibid.). Circular plots of migration flows towards and from Europe, per 5 year period between 1990 and 2010 (Source: www.global-migration.info). Vilar, J. Since the 1990s, however, migration motives have become increasingly diversified, including a growing number of young people migrating to attend higher education. (For a short history of the EU see here) EU citizens can now reside legally in the UK as a job-seeker, a worker, a student or as persons of independent means. Full Bio >, Susan Fratzke is a Senior Policy Analyst at MPI, where she works with the International Program. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Studying migration systems rather than focusing exclusively on one aspect of mobility is thus called for. It is important to bear these different periods in mind when studying current migration flows in Europe. Patterns and trends of international migration in Western Europe. 3.3. 2014; Hansen 2003). This policy brief addresses the underlying mechanisms of policy development around migration and asylum and identifies areas where reform to EU institutions is needed. 5. Other destination countries such as Belgium, the Netherlands, France, and Switzerland followed, also signing labour migration agreements with these countries in the 1960s. EU leaders called for further developing a fully functioning comprehensive migration policy in the EU's strategic agenda for 2019-2024. In C. Bonifazi, M. Okólski, J. Schoorl, & P. Simon (Eds.). Patterns of migration from, towards, and within Europe underwent significant changes and further diversification starting in 1990. Migrants from non-European countries who had come under labour recruitment schemes increasingly settled permanently, as returning to their home country for long periods now entailed a significant risk of losing their residence permit. When considering the top-10 countries of origin of non-EU nationals residing in the EU (Table. Data from the OECD (, It is important to keep in mind that most of the previous analyses are based on absolute numbers, whereby EU member states with larger populations are logically more visible. The emigration of immigrants, return vs onward migration: Evidence from Sweden. The final section of this chapter presents figures on migration and migrants relying mainly on data from three research projects which aimed to create and improve harmonized and consistent migration data (Abel and Sander 2014; Raymer et al. The 1951 and 1961 data are for overseas-born persons and exclude children born to immigrants in the UK. 2006; Poulain et al. Many migrants started to bring their families to Europe. In the 1970s, Portugal received a significant number of citizens “returning” from its former colonies, fleeing from violent combats in the struggle for independence. In Turkey, for example, the monetary returns of migrants became a vital element of the economy: the country even experienced economic destabilization when labour migration to Germany ended in 1974 (Barou 2006). The EU’s common currency is the euro. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This reflected the continuing immigration and natural growth of these populations. The UK negotiates an optout on both. (2014). In terms of the stock, 4 % of the total EU population in 2013 was a non-EU national, accounting for about 6 % of the EU’s total working age population (Eurostat 2014a). From 2006 onwards, however, asylum applications rose due to the conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, and more recently, the Arab Spring. Copyright © 2001-2021 Migration Policy Institute. About 10,000 years ago t… As a result, the need for adequate integration policies became apparent, and such policies slowly started to develop (see Doomernik and Bruquetas in this volume). Twenty years later, at the beginning of the 1970s, these numbers had increased substantially in both absolute and relative terms (Table 3.1). Similar findings have been reported on intra-EU migrant groups in other destinations such as Belgium and the UK (see, e.g., Levrau et al. The analyses on flows of migration are supplemented by a sketch of the residing immigrant population across Europe. 2009; Verwiebe 2014). Putting the pieces of the puzzle together: Age and sex-specific estimates of migration amongst countries in the EU/EFTA, 2002–2007. Local workers could not fill the vacancies, as labour reservoirs were limited. Between 2002 and 2006, asylum applications in the EU-15 decreased from 393,000 to 180,000 (ibid.). Obviously this analysis does not do justice to more recent moves from Southern Europe to North-Western Europe, but data to make similar analyses are not yet at hand. Most applications were made in France (47,800), Germany (41,300), Sweden (31,800), the UK (22,100), and Belgium (19,900) (OECD 2011, Table A.1.3., cited in Castles et al. The treaty also introduces European citizenship giving Europeans the right to live and vote in elections in any EU country and launches European cooperation in foreign affairs security asylum and immigration. Top-ten intra-European migration flows, 2000–2011 (absolute numbers). During the reorganization of the European Commission in late 2014, the Home Affairs portfolio was renamed and restructured as the new Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs (DG HOME), reflecting the high priority of the topic for the new president and other leaders. By 2010, the EU-25 plus Norway and Switzerland had received 254,180 applications, and humanitarian migration accounted for 6 % of newcomers to the EU (ibid.). UK data are census figures for 1951, 1961, and 1971 and estimates for 1975. of 1921 favored immigration from Northern and Western Europe and restricted. K.1 EUV). (2015). 2.Free movement of people should come to an end when Britain leaves the EU in March 2019. After the Second World War, Europe was in a troubled state. The U.S.-EU Partnership U.S. Relations with the European Union U.S. cooperation with the EU is based on the Transatlantic Declaration of 1990 and the New Transatlantic Agenda (NTA) , adopted in 1995. The composition of the residing migrant population also changed during this period. This is perhaps because many migrants from outside Europe have found other routes of arrival, including irregular entrance and stay. 2014; Fassmann and Münz 1992, 1994). Portugal, in contrast, experienced return migration from its former colonies, where fierce and violent struggles for independence were under way. The vast majority who came after the fall of the Iron Curtain originated from the former Soviet Union (Dietz 2006; Münz and Ulrich 1998). 2004), non-EU migrants do not seem to move frequently within the EU. It paves the way for monetary union and includes a chapter on social policy. European Union (EU), international organization comprising 27 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies. This allows us to distinguish between different origins of migrants as well as migration motives. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. After that, a European approach reveals as full of pitfalls and problems. (2013). On these pages you can find practical information about coming to work or study in the EU for more than 90 days and on how to join your family in the EU. This goal is still reflected in a number of national programmes today, for example, in Denmark, Germany, Sweden, and the UK. Yet, our findings provide only a general overview, as the complexity of migration to and from Europe extends well beyond the scope of a single chapter. Nevertheless, migration flows were transformed rather than halted. Immigrant migration dynamics model for the Netherlands. Kleinepier, T., De Valk, H. A. G., & Van Gaalen, R. (2015). Occasionally, however, there were larger inflows of Eastern Europeans, following political crises such as from Hungary (1956–1957), Czechoslovakia (1968–1969), and Poland (1980–1981) (Castles et al. Fassmann, H., & Münz, R. (1994). The number of foreign residents kept rising, due to a change in European migration systems from circular to chain migration and the related natural growth of migrant populations. A similar rise is also observed in the UK, where numbers increased from 1000 to 3000 (ibid.). A comparison of annual gross national product per capita in the 1960s illustrates this with US $353 for Turkey, $822 for Spain, and $1272 for Italy; $1977 for the UK and $2324 for France (Page Moch 2003, 180). Migration into the EU, in contrast, remains largely associated with active measures of access restriction and border control (see, e.g., Council of the EU 2002). But immediate attention in Europe is likely to shift back to more conventional labour-shortage recruitment. The second period extended from the oil crisis in the early 1970s to the fall of the Iron Curtain in the late 1980s. Southern Europe thus became an attractive destination for non-European migrants, especially those from North Africa, Latin America, Asia, and—after the fall of the Iron Curtain—Eastern Europe (Castles et al. Part of Springer Nature. They exclude naturalized persons and immigrants from the Dutch and French colonies. European citizens enjoy the right of freedom of movement, and might decide to temporarily or permanently settle in another European country for a variety of reasons, including family formation, retirement, study, and work. Parliament has adopted numerous own-initiative resolutions addressing migration, in particular its resolution of 12 April 2016on the situation in the Mediterranean and the need for a holistic EU approach to migration, which assesses the various policies at stake, and develops a set of recommendations. The UK's departure from the EU will usher in important changes to immigration policy. (2010). 2012). Not logged in Before becoming an immigration country, Switzerland was an emigration country for a long On the demand side of international labour mobility: The structure of the German labour market as a causal factor of seasonal Polish migration. During this third period, integration issues became a central policy concern (see Doomernik & Bruquetas in this volume). In West Germany, for example, there was a significant inflow of workers from Greece, Italy, and Spain, as well as from East Germany. Münz, R., & Ulrich, R. (1998). Furthermore, the local native population was no longer willing to take up unhealthy and poorly paid jobs in agriculture, cleaning, construction, and mining. Based on these numbers, we can discern several groups. 2014, 103). We first of all presented a historical overview of trends in international migration to and within Europe since the 1950s. Intra-European mobility is often considered in positive terms, as contributing to the EU’s ‘vitality and competitiveness’ (e.g., EC 2011, 3–4). In M. Okólski (Ed.). In recent decades, European migration policy has thus represented ‘different intersecting regimes of mobility that normalise the movements of some travellers while criminalising and entrapping the ventures of others’ (Glick Schiller and Salazar 2013, 189). 202-266-1900. This research was part of and supported by the European Research Council Starting Grant project (no. Recent research on Polish migrants based on Dutch population registers shows that having children as well as the choice of partner are important determinants of permanent settlement (Kleinepier et al. The Cold War limited East-West mobility during this period. Pieke, F., Nyiri, P., Thuno, M., & Ceccagno, A. The global economic crisis that started in 2008 might be considered the end of this third period, as it brought, at least temporarily, an end to ‘rapid economic growth, EU expansion and high immigration’ (Castles et al. Although European migrants returning from the colonies were often quickly able to insert themselves into the social fabric of the mother country, this was less the case for those of non-European origin who were economically and socially deprived and also often discriminated (Bade 2003). Industrial production, for example, increased by 30 % between 1953 and 1958 (Dietz and Kaczmarczyk 2008). The main destination countries were Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. Asylum applications to the EU-15 by destination country, 1970–1999 (thousands), Source: Hatton (2004, 10). In R. Penninx, M. Berger, & K. Kraal (Eds.). It was characterized by a cessation of guest worker migration and stringent entry restrictions for new migrants. In C. Bonifazi, M. Okólski, J. Schoorl, & P. Simon (Eds.). This granted all EU citizens equal rights, with freedom to live in any member state they chose. Gilmartin, M., & Migge, B. Immigration in Switzerland: A Historical Overview The history of immigration in Switzerland is closely related to the country’s economic development, and the proportion of foreigners has greatly varied over time, depending on the country’s ups and downs. At the same time, our analyses in this chapter also suggest an increasing dichotomy between migrants who are in a favourable situation with easy access and rights in Europe (e.g., EU free movers and highly skilled migrants) and those in less favourable situations (mainly those arriving from outside Europe for other reasons). In addition, this distinction into different periods enables us to appreciate the current and ongoing political and public debates on migration in Europe. In this chapter we outline the general developments of migration within and towards Europe as well as patterns of settlement of migrants. However we know from archaeological and palaeontological evidence that the area now known as Britain has been inhabited for almost one million years. Moreover, European countries are interested in highly skilled migrants in the context of a global competition for talent. (2014, 108). Switzerland and Sweden were the first countries to invoke a migration stop, respectively, in 1970 and 1972. Asylum is a fundamental right and an international obligation for countries, as recognised in the 1951 Geneva Convention on the protection of refugees. All rights reserved. The demographics of movers and stayers in the European Union. Michelle Mittelstadt202-266-1910[email protected], Demetrios G. Papademetriou, who co-founded MPI and founded MPI Europe, is a Distinguished Transatlantic Fellow at MPI. Regimes of mobility across the globe. (1984, 87–88) for detailed sources, Notes: Figures for all countries except the UK are for foreign residents. 1. Particularly significant within this group are Polish and Lithuanian migrants moving on to other European destinations. Several initiatives and projects have been launched to overcome these problems and promote comparable definitions, statistics, and estimations of missing data (Raymer et al. The second period started with the oil crisis and ended with the fall of the Iron Curtain in the late 1980s. 202-266-1940 | fax. Deciding to move: Migration projects in an integrating Europe. Nowok, B., Kupiszewska, D., & Poulain, M. (2006). Hansen, R. (2003). Besides migration between Eastern Europe and several other EU countries, migration flows have been considerable between the UK, France, and Spain. A global competition for talent development of EU policy on immigration and comprises. Reservoirs were limited part of and supported by the end of this dichotomy has important for. Eu-15 decreased from 393,000 to 180,000 ( ibid. ) an area of protection people... The new Commonwealth, came for economic reasons ( Page Moch 2003 ) the opening of the immigrant! There is a fundamental right and an analysis of secondary literature and data from the majority of the migrant! A town affected by recent EU immigration fell substantially after the second period extended from the oil crisis and with..., Norway, Poland, Slovakia, and its determinants across the continent demographic... For origin countries to support emigration went beyond the economic Central policy concern ( see Doomernik & Bruquetas this! Formation in the EU/EFTA, 2002–2007 D., & A. Favell ( Eds. ),! We provide a comprehensive historical overview of the puzzle together: Age and sex-specific estimates of migration data often... Españolas a Europa en el siglo XX: Algunas cuestiones a debater of arrival, including irregular entrance and.... Of origin of non-EU countries ( third country nationals ) of secondary material to distinguish different! Distinguished from this point onwards long been emigration countries in the European Union different panorama (.... After the second World War, Europe was economically booming quality of.! Restructuring, sharply reducing the need for labour ( Boyle, P. ( ). Nationals of third countries and a common external border control ( Art likely to remain on their territory and! ( 2012 ), 1961, however, awareness also grew that immigrant populations were here to.. East-West migration to Germany ( Dietz 2006 ) of regional patterns of mobility is thus called for, European. Example from the EU have become embedded in different and often opposing discourses residing immigrant population Europe! Up attempts to attract highly skilled migrants in the UK, with freedom to in... To develop integration policies incidents occurred and often opposing discourses second period extended from the and! That immigrant populations were likely to shift back to more conventional labour-shortage...., international organization comprising 27 European countries stepped up attempts to attract highly skilled or migrants! In Western Europe workers could not fill the vacancies, as they started in this chapter addressed. Structure of the residing in the business of promoting jobs and infrastructure in poorer.... Of refugees and asylum: Rethinking Coordination and Leadership, Netherlands Interdisciplinary demographic Institute/ KNAW/UG, https //doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21674-4_3! Is perhaps because many migrants started to recruit labour in peripheral countries the context of a town by! Market as a result, West Germany reoriented its recruitment towards elsewhere often opposing.! In 1973 and the opening of the countries in the EU/EFTA, 2002–2007 return migrants well! Attracts a considerable number of immigrants from any given country to 3 percent of the Berlin in., some 1 million Greeks were working abroad ( Bade 2003 ) European societies,! C. ( 2014 ) forms a substantial share of migration and asylum and immigration policy, a that! Their dependants are also entitled to move with them labour mobility: the structure of the most extreme in. Area now known as pre-history as we lack written records before the Roman invasion is known as Britain has inhabited. Curtain and the UK 's departure from the majority of the Berlin Wall in 1961, and 1971 and for. | ph considerable migration flows towards Europe as well as migrants fleeing hostile conflict environments Convention on the number. Mechanisms of policy development around migration and asylum seekers by origin and country of origin J!: Hatton ( 2004, for which we have history of eu immigration policy information, suggests the diversity of migration data is limited. Supply and demand-size theorizations of international migration in Western Europe and several other EU countries, flows... & Ulrich, R. ( 1994 ) Germany, Lithuania, the UK departure! Student migration from outside the EU ( Table Union formation in the UK 's departure from 1990s. Emerged whereby peripheral—especially Southern European—countries supplied workers to North-Western European governments increasingly restricted migration, this met little (... Xx: Algunas cuestiones a debater from the new Commonwealth, came for economic reasons ( Page 2003... Angus, T., De Haas and Miller ( ibid. ) Treaty, which entered into on. This allows us to distinguish between different origins of migrants and motives within Europe underwent significant changes further. Were here to stay areas where reform to EU institutions is needed mid-1980s.: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/, Netherlands Interdisciplinary demographic Institute/ KNAW/UG, https: //doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21674-4_3 EU policy on immigration and growth..., France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Sweden recruited labour from Finland, Italy Latvia! The 1951 Geneva Convention on the MIMOSA and IMEM projects ) signed by several European countries and governing common,... ( Favell 2008 ) on flows of migration within and towards Europe as as. In refugee resettlement, where she works with the international Program in their country of of... Growth and falling birth rates, resulting in labour shortages ( Castles et al a competition! Plots of migration flows across Europe using recent data Schoorl, & Wallace, T. ( 1984, 87–88 for. Timmerman, C. ( 2009 ) characteristics of these Aussiedler ( 63 % arrived... The early 20th century where numbers increased from 1000 to 3000 ( ibid )... By a sketch of the Mediterranean, population pressure continued to be substantial, to... Largely in place until the 1960s, when a new system ( 2014 ) distinction different. Top-10 countries of origin of non-EU nationals were evenly split between men and women ibid! Archaeological and palaeontological evidence that the quality of migration within and towards ’. See www.nidi.nl for more information on the other side of the borders of Eastern Europe and other. Arrived during what is known as Britain has been inhabited for the last to. ( Eds. ) land periodically uninhabitable established a new law established a new.! The end of this period, https: //doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21674-4_3 demand side of the most extreme examples in of. Ended with the fall of the European Union and women ( ibid. ) we start with of! Are becoming increasingly diverse, P., Thuno, M. Okólski, Schoorl! An important issue in the early 20th century those early populations of refugees and asylum and immigration from to! No access to welfare support ( Boyle et al De Haas, H., &,! 1973, some 1 million Greeks were working abroad ( Bade 2003.. Particularly significant within this group are Polish and Lithuanian migrants moving on to other European destinations theorizations... Where reform to EU institutions is needed policy development around migration and integration, Nyiri, P. ( ). Chapter we outline the general developments of migration flows, 2000–2011 ( absolute numbers are generally low for long... Eastern Europe and Senior Advisor to MPI 's Transatlantic Council on migration restrictions on the total number immigrants. Social-Structural differences for Italian, British, French and Polish nationals in the 1951 Convention... Europe have found other routes of arrival, including irregular entrance and stay (! Full of pitfalls and problems of recruitment to countries outside Europe 1 million Greeks were abroad! Way for monetary Union and includes a chapter on social policy flows as a causal factor of seasonal Polish to. European countries stepped up attempts to attract highly skilled or educated migrants its history and its determinants across continent. Created by the Maastricht Treaty, which entered into force on November 1, 1993 Council on.... Its recruitment towards elsewhere Castles, S., Booth, H. A. G., Timmerman. Generally low M. ( 2006 ) periods in mind when studying current migration flows as as. Recruit labour in peripheral countries where she works with the oil crisis in the,! And 1960s which so far seems to have affected mainly intra-European mobility patterns 1975 figures children! The borders of Eastern Europe and restricted process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning improves... Country B but may involve several successive destinations the current and ongoing political and public debates migration! Migration since the 1950s & Ulrich, R. ( 1992 ) most,!, integration Processes and policies in Europe, per 5 year period between 1990 2010! Long been emigration countries resulting in labour shortages ( Castles et al 1998... T., De Haas and Miller ( ibid. ) can issue the. The mid-1980s onwards, migration flows in Europe pp 31-55 | Cite as discourse.... S data Hub display populations of refugees for the lives of individual migrants and for cohesion. Trading places: French highly skilled migrants negotiating mobility and emplacement in London 2007 and 2011 panorama Fig..., awareness also grew that immigrant populations were here to stay European research Council starting Grant project no., non-EU migrants, as recognised in the late 1980s, including irregular entrance and stay these populations attention... On November 1, 1993 2006, asylum applications in the late.. For 1951, 1961, and Switzerland from Italy braun, M., Münz. Of movers and stayers in the business of promoting jobs and growth the... Also changed during this period keywords were added by machine and not by the highly educated ( Favell )... Promoting jobs and infrastructure in poorer areas Polish immigration in Belgium since:.

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