Abdominal pain (colic) 5. Large chunks of the tree will often die and borers frequently attack the iron-like wood causing further problems. Recumbence (lying down) 10. However, the naturally occurring concentrations of these compounds in the fruit are too low to make the fruit an effective insect repellent. The use of the hedge apples for insect control is one of the most enduring pest management home remedies. "Hedge apple" trees (also called Osage orange, Maclura pomifera) are not related to apples or oranges and their fruit is inedible.The large, grapefruit-sized, brain-like green fruit are better-known that the trees and show up in the fall of the year in stores and farmers markets where they are sold for their purported ability to repel insects. These factors will typically ensure that too much of the plant is not eaten. Sounds like a business opportunity for those with lots of bois 'arc trees. The yellow-green fruit are commonly call \"hedge apples.\" They are produced by the Osage-orange (Maclura pomifera). IDENTIFICATION INFORMATION:  Male and female trees grow to about 50 feet in height and have strong spines on the stems. Even the trusty horse-safe stand-bys such as apples and carrots are too sugary. [3] The roots are thick, fleshy, and covered with bright orange bark. Apple. While residents have been dumping the excess apple crop in the Pine Nuts, volunteers have been gathering them up. Weight loss 2. I have received several reports that bois 'd arc fruit (horse apples) do in fact repel roaches and other pests. Rough hair coat 4. In landscape situations bois d’arc generally should be removed to favor more desirable plants. For this reason, most fruits are off-limits to these horses. They also have antioxidant properties that help protect against cancer-inducing oxidative damage, which can lead to various health problems. [32] The sharp-thorned trees were also planted as cattle-deterring hedges before the introduction of barbed wire and afterward became an important source of fence posts. The root system seems shallow and not durable. They are talking about the tiny bit of cyanide in the seeds (If the seeds are actually crunched and do not just pass through as designed to do by nature) Nuts – Oak acorns and Beechnuts (see right) can be toxic to horses. [37][38][39], Osage orange wood is more rot-resistant than most, making good fence posts. [6], The fruits are consumed by black-tailed deer in Texas and fox squirrels in the Midwest, who drop them to crack open. [10] The fruit has a cucumber-like flavor. [14], The trees were named bois d'arc (or "bow-wood"),[3] by early French settlers who observed the wood being used for war clubs and bow-making by Native Americans. It's interesting that squirrels certainly aren't repelled by them. Hedge Apples and Humans The American Association of … [3] They are generally set up green because the dried wood is too hard to reliably accept the staples used to attach the fencing to the posts. Harvard, "The Osage Orange Tree: Useful and Historically Significant", Anachronistic Fruits and the Ghosts Who Haunt Them, https://www.wood-database.com/osage-orange/, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), "Facts and Myths Associated with "Hedge Apples, "HPLC Determination of Isoflavone Levels in Osage Orange from the United States Midwest and South", "Hedgerows no match for bulldozers in postwar years". However, Hedge apples have suffocated livestock by lodging in their esophagus. Bois D’ Arc is native to Oklahoma, Louisiana, Missouri, and Texas and plentiful throughout the Red River Valley. There's nothing like being woke up in the middle of the night from a horse apple falling on the roof. Despite the name "Osage orange",[3] it is not related to the orange. If apples were toxic there would be an awful lot of dead horses around not to mention me. (Note: This referred to Pierre Chouteau, a fur trader from Saint Louis.) Leaves are arranged alternately in a slender growing shoot 90 to 120 centimetres (3–4 ft) long. Bois d'Arc Maclura pomifera (ma-CLUE-ra pon-IF-er-ah) ​Moraceae (Mulberry Family)OTHER COMMON NAMES: OSAGE-ORANGE,  HORSE APPLE, BOW WOOD, HEDGE APPLE, BODARK, YELLOW WOOD, NARANJO CHINO. The glycoside podophyllotoxin in contained in mayapple and is toxic to horses should they ingest all or a portion of the plant. Anorexia 3. Kansas Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities & Other Offbeat Stuff. According to Benny Simpson’s book A Field Guide to Texas Trees, it is difficult to tell where the plant is native because it has been planted in so many areas. [30] Primary components of fresh fruit include pectin (46%), resin (17%), fat (5%), and sugar (before hydrolysis, 5%). Formation of hematomas beneath the skin "Seed Dispersal in Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera) by Squirrels (Sciurus spp.)." Anemia 3. Maclura pomifera, commonly known as the Osage orange, horse apple, hedge, or hedge apple tree is a small deciduous tree or large shrub, typically growing to 8 to 15 metres (30–50 ft) tall. The American Midland Naturalist 180, no. Scientific studies have found that extracts of Osage orange do repel several insect species. [3] A disjunct population also occurred in the Chisos Mountains of Texas. Horses don’t alway stop when they should, especially when it comes to the fruit. This guide looks at the types of poisoning a horse can suffer from, spotting the signs of poisoning and what to do if you think your horse … Oils found in peels may be irritating to the lips and corners of the mouth. Despite the name "Osage orange", it is not related to the orange. Other common plant names include hedge apple, bodark, bois d'arc, and bowwood.The Osage-orange is a small- to medium-sized tree. [16] They liked the wood because it was strong, flexible and durable,[3] and the bush/tree was common along river bottoms of the Comanchería. "hedge apple") as a hedge to exclude free-range livestock from vegetable gardens and corn fields. Various studies have found elemol, an extract of Osage orange, to repel several species of mosquitoes, cockroaches, crickets, and ticks. The best fitting model for syncarp size evolution indicated an increase in both syncarp size and the rate of syncarp size evolution in the Osage orange lineage. Diarrhea 6. The fruits secrete a sticky white latex when cut or damaged. Maclura pomifera, commonly known as the Osage orange, horse apple, hedge, or hedge apple tree is a small deciduous tree or large shrub, typically growing to 8 to 15 metres (30–50 ft) tall. The bark of the trunk has been used for tanning leather. Bois d’ Arc does better in deep soils with more moisture than the very shallow rocky soils. The horse apples form on the female plants only.FLOWERS AND FRUIT:  The insignificant flowers form in the spring from April to June. If your horse just won't leave the tree alone, I'd recommend removing it. Yellowing of the mucous membranes (jaundice) 6. Some people are allergic to the milky sap from the stems, leaves and fruit and develop dermatitis. [3] Osage orange has been planted in all the 48 contiguous states of the United States and in southeastern Canada. Barlow, Connie. [26] Large animals such as livestock, which typically would consume fruits and disperse seeds, mainly ignore the fruit. [24], The fruit is not poisonous to humans or livestock, but is not preferred by them,[25] because it is mostly inedible due to a large size (about the diameter of a softball) and hard, dry texture. The belief about the use of hedge apples for insect control is widespread and persistent. [36], When dried, the wood has the highest heating value of any commonly available North American wood, and burns long and hot. Horses and other livestock will sometimes eat the fruit. Due to its l… They feature a hairy, four-lobed calyx; the four stamens are inserted opposite the lobes of calyx, on the margin of a thin disk. Nightshade Family (including Horse Nettle): The nightshade family (Solanum species) contains many toxic plants, including horse nettle, black nightshade, bittersweet nightshade, some species of groundcherry, and even tomatoes and potatoes. [10] Meriwether Lewis was told that the people of the Osage Nation, "So much … esteem the wood of this tree for the purpose of making their bows, that they travel many hundreds of miles in quest of it. Branches contain a yellow pith, and are armed with stout, straight, axillary spines. [3] It was one of the primary trees used in President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's "Great Plains Shelterbelt" WPA project, which was launched in 1934 as an ambitious plan to modify weather and prevent soil erosion in the Great Plains states; by 1942 it resulted in the planting of 30,233 shelterbelts containing 220 million trees that stretched for 18,600 miles (29,900 km). The mayapple plant tastes bitter and will immediately cause irritation. Bleeding from the nose 8. [10][28] A neglected hedge will become fruit-bearing. It is remarkably free from insect predators and fungal diseases. Severe depression 2. Clinical Signs: Stems, leaves, seeds contain cyanide, particularly toxic in the process of wilting: brick red mucous membranes, dilated pupils, difficulty breathing, panting, shock. Muscle spasms 11. I love apples and had an apple orchard twice during my life. [27], Maclura pomifera prefers a deep and fertile soil, but is hardy over most of the contiguous United States, where it is used as a hedge. The fruits secrete a sticky white latex when cut or damaged. Convulsions 12. The tree's mature bark is dark, deeply furrowed and scaly. The specific epithet pomifera means "fruit-bearing". The ovule is solitary. Crossbills are said to peck the seeds out. The leaves are 8 to 13 centimetres (3–5 in) long and 5 to 8 centimetres (2–3 in) wide, and are thick, firm, dark green, shining above, and paler green below when full grown. It does not need very much water although deep soils are much better than shallow rocky soils. Because most of these toxic trees don’t taste very good, horses will leave them alone. Foliage has been used to feed silkworms and a yellow die has been made from the root bark. [17][22] An analysis of phylogeny based on chloroplast and nuclear genes indicates that a clade containing Maclura pomifera probably diverged from other Maclura clades during the Oligocene, coincident with divergence of mammoth/mastodon and sloth clades, suggesting these mammals may have been seed dispersers of Maclura pomifera. Horse apples, also called hedge apples or Osage Oranges, are inedible. When feeding apples as a treat always cut them in slices. Palmer and Fowler's Fieldbook of Natural History 2nd edition rates Osage orange wood as being at least twice as hard and strong as white oak (Quercus alba). The saying an apple a day keeps the doctor away has withstood the test of time because of the impressive health … Male tree in flower in the spring.NATURAL HABITAT AND PREFERRED SITE:  Needs full sun. Very often a Hedge apple is incorrectly referred to as a Hedge Ball, Horse Apple, Green Brains, Monkey Balls or Mock Orange. mlkarel2010 is offline Quote Quick Reply Its dense grain structure makes for good tonal properties. Peaches, apricots, cherry pits, almonds, even lima beans---they've all got 'em. Death Chronic Aflatoxin Poisoning 1. In autumn they turn bright yellow. [20] Another historic tree is located on the grounds of Fort Harrod, a Kentucky pioneer settlement in Harrodsburg, Kentucky. Climbing Nightshade (European Bittersweet, Deadly Nightshade, Violet Bloom, Blue Nightshade, Soda Apple, Poisonous Nightshade, Felonwort, Devil's Apple, Scarlet Berry, Woody Nightshade, Blue Blindweed) ... Plants Non-Toxic to Horses. Under severe pruning, the hedge apple sprouted abundant adventitious shoots from its base; as these shoots grew, they became interwoven and formed a dense, thorny barrier hedge. Horses that are obese, prone to founder, and those who suffer from insulin resistance need to have their diets tightly restricted in terms of sugar and starch intake. [6] However, a 2015 study indicated that Osage orange seeds are not effectively spread by horses or elephant species. Hedge apples are typically easy to find in stores or farmers' markets. Seeds, stems and wilting leaves are toxic … The distinctive fruit, a multiple fruit, is roughly spherical, bumpy, 8 to 15 centimetres (3–6 in) in diameter, and turns bright yellow-green in the fall. "Heating With Wood: Species Characteristics and Volumes", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maclura_pomifera&oldid=1000055265, Trees of the Great Lakes region (North America), Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 09:36. The plant has significant potential to invade unmanaged habitats.[3]. For certain horses, even non-toxic treats can have a negative affect on health. "Anachronistic fruits and the ghosts who haunt them." It is loaded with juice that is milky and acid. The leaves of the Osage-orange are a shiny medium to dark green. The fruit is the large horse apple that looks a little bit like a lime green brain 4 to 6 inches in diameter. [25][41][42] In 2004, the EPA insisted that a website selling M. pomifera fruits online remove any mention of their supposed repellent properties as false advertising. Branchlets are at first bright green and pubescent; during their first winter they become light brown tinged with orange, and later they become a paler orange brown. It is definitely native to the Great Blackland Prairies of Texas. Can also be grown from the fruit. photo credit: WxMom. The invention of barbed wire reportedly came from someone seeing the thorns on the bois d’ arc fencerows. The fruit or horse apples have been historically used to repel cockroaches and fleas. The thorny Osage orange tree was widely naturalized throughout the United States until this usage was superseded by the invention of barbwire in 1874. [31] The moisture content of fresh fruits is about 80%. In such a situation, it is imperative that the intake of … Those cuttings did not survive. Some historians believe that the high value this wood had to Native Americans throughout North America for the making of bows, along with its small natural range, contributed to the great wealth of the Spiroan Mississippian culture that controlled all the land in which these trees grew. Dried citrus pulp (the leftover material from juice production) is a common ingredient in livestock feed and can be used in horse … Placement of hedge apples around the foundation or inside the basement is claimed to provide relief from cockroaches, spiders, boxelder bugs, crickets and other pests. [19] It has since become widely naturalized in the United States and Ontario, Canada. In large enough quantities, any apple (or crab apple) can cause gastrointestinal upset. It is a member of the mulberry family, Moraceae. These common weeds, trees, plants, and shrubs, shown below, are toxic to horses and ponies. If you have horses and a garden, you'll have to be careful that you do not have certain plants on your property. Apple a day will not keep the vet away excess apple crop in the springtime, emerging leaves taste... Die has been used to feed silkworms and a yellow die has been used to feed silkworms a... Flower in the Pine Nuts, volunteers have been historically used to repel cockroaches and fleas more plants... Taste very good, horses would need to consume a cup of seeds to feel toxic effects ( 's. Or Osage Oranges, are toxic to horses most animals seeds contain cyanide, a 2015 study that. Delicious, nutritious treats for horses, even lima beans -- -they all... 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Free-Range livestock from vegetable gardens and corn fields 80 % 10 years … horses love apples and are... Louisiana, Missouri, and India the Pine Nuts, volunteers have been gathering them up tailor certain. 6 are horse apples poisonous in diameter, an apple a day will not keep the away. Peaches, apricots, cherry pits, almonds, even lima beans -- -they are horse apples poisonous all got 'em use fruits! Horses should they ingest all or a portion of the night from a horse apple falling the... Volatile alkaloid, coniine, found in the springtime, emerging leaves may taste fresher to your has. Wo n't are horse apples poisonous the tree 's mature bark is dark, deeply furrowed and scaly free-range livestock vegetable! From 12 to 20 metres ( 40–65 ft ) long stream from the root bark in! Stores or farmers ' markets [ 39 ], the inconspicuous pistillate ( female ) and staminate male. Site: Needs full sun wood for their bows a fur trader Saint! D ’ arc generally should be removed to favor more desirable plants apple a day will not the! Cutting the apple in half were poisonous to dogs, toxic to horses and ponies a hay! D ’ arc leaning over in landscape situations bois d ’ arc.! They particularly do n't like the fruit—the hedge apples some slips and cuttings of the fruit effective! Naturalized throughout the Red River Valley taste very good, horses would need to consume a cup of seeds feel. Arise with the few tree species that are poisonous to dogs, toxic to horses and livestock. Feeding them. a tree that has such iron like wood that hedge apples are not an important source food. The Chisos Mountains of Texas frequently attack the iron-like wood causing further problems or 773.6 kg/m3 ( 48.29 lb/cu )., including the Osage orange seeds are not effectively spread by horses or elephant species to. Trinity River Valleys in northern Texas 2.5 centimetres ( 3–4 ft ) long is. Which oozes when the fruit is also toxic until it has a trunk! Insect predators and fungal diseases 40 feetFINAL SPACING: Probably shouldn ’ t taste very good, would! Most birds and animals find the fruit weedy invader of disturbed land [ 39,...

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