the United States. Most of the militia volunteers disbanded in 1838 and went back to their regular lives. The rebels from Toronto travelled to the United States in groups of two. Mackenzie saw the bank as a prop of the Government and demanded farmers withdraw the money they had deposited in the bank and public confidence in the bank decreased. [33] After the Battle of Saint-Denis Fitzgibbon prepared a list of men that he could contact personally if a rebellion began in Toronto. In November 1837, James Fitzgibbon was concerned about soldiers leaving Upper Canada going to quell the Lower Canada Rebellion and urged Bond Head to keep some troops for protection, which was refused. The loyalist forces included 120 Black soldiers under the command of Colonel Samuel Jarvis. Thus, responsible government became a "pragmatic" policy of alleviating local abuses, rather than a revolutionary anti-colonial moment. Lount encouraged some riflemen to return fire before realising that the enemy had left the battlefield. There is continuing debate about who was responsible for the rebellion and the degree of popular support it enjoyed. In Upper Canada the 1836 elections had been marred by political violence and fraud organized by the new Lt. At this point only 200 men at Montgomery's Tavern were armed. The British government was concerned about the rebellion, especially in light of the strong popular support for the rebels in the United States and the Lower Canada Rebellion. Protestant groups. Two years later, Upper and Lower Canada were unified. The Upper Canada Rebellion was, along with the Patriotes Rebellion in Lower Canada, a rebellion against the colonial government in 1837 and 1838.Collectively they are also known as the Rebellion of 1837, while the Patriotes Rebellion is also called the Lower Canada Rebellion.. In total, three men — two rebels and one loyalist — lost their lives. Lord Gosford (1835–38). After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. other  (Hundreds of Black Canadians volunteered Murray, and Barry Wright (2 vol 1996, 2002), This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 01:59. Mackenzie, Duncombe and other rebel leaders fled with about 200 followers to In March 1837 the Tories passed a law making it cheaper to sue farmers by allowing city merchants to sue in the middle of harvest. Causes of the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 Introduction This paper introduces an important pre-Confederation expression of dissent in Upper Canada that can be little known or understood today. The Rebellion was, rather, the unintended consequence of a sophisticated political movement that copied the organizational forms of the British Reform movement. He left Hamilton, Ontario on December 12 and arrived in Brantford on December 13. [12] The Canadian Alliance Society was reborn as the Constitutional Reform Society in 1836, and led by the more moderate reformer, Dr William W. Baldwin. With the help of American volunteers, the various rebel groups launched raids against Upper Canada. However, the mainstream historical view is that the uprising had limited support and was largely an accident. The rebels fled north and the morale of the rebellion was irreparably broken. The rebellions of 1837–38. Reform movement. These policies favoured r… Fitzgibbon was appointed commander of the government's forces. In 1834, he became the first mayor of Toronto. and moderate reformers such as Robert Baldwin, were defeated. Five hundred men gathered under the leadership of Charles Duncombe. However, by discrediting extremists on both sides of the political spectrum, the rebellion did help moderates rise to power. 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