Learn to identify these plants in your pastures and yards and be sure to remove them as soon as possible to keep your horses safe. "hedge apple") as a hedge to exclude free-range livestock from vegetable gardens and corn fields. Under severe pruning, the hedge apple sprouted abundant adventitious shoots from its base; as these shoots grew, they became interwoven and formed a dense, thorny barrier hedge. [6] The edible seeds of the fruit are used by squirrels as food. In autumn they turn bright yellow. There are no harsh chemicals that are poisonous to dogs, as with other products. The root system seems shallow and not durable. You can often see bois d’ arc leaning over in landscape situations because the root system has failed. Apples are easy to cultivate and tailor to certain tastes because of their resilient genetic diversity. Large chunks of the tree will often die and borers frequently attack the iron-like wood causing further problems. Diarrhea 6. The fruits secrete a sticky white latex when cut or damaged. [3][35] Although its wood is commonly knotty and twisted, straight-grained Osage orange timber makes good bows, as used by Native Americans. It typically has a short trunk and a rounded or irregular crown. Yellowing of the mucous membranes (jaundice) 6. The plant has significant potential to invade unmanaged habitats.[3]. The mature multiple fruit's size and general appearance resembles a large, yellow-green orange, 10 to 13 centimetres (4–5 in) in diameter, with a roughened and tuberculated surface. I was always told that hedge apples and the trees were poisonous to cattle and horses, but idk, it beats me. Bois d’ Arc does better in deep soils with more moisture than the very shallow rocky soils. The fruits secrete a sticky white latex when cut or damaged. Rough hair coat 4. Horses that are obese, prone to founder, and those who suffer from insulin resistance need to have their diets tightly restricted in terms of sugar and starch intake. [31], The Osage orange is commonly used as a tree row windbreak in prairie states, which gives it one of its colloquial names, "hedge apple". While residents have been dumping the excess apple crop in the Pine Nuts, volunteers have been gathering them up. It has a specific gravity of 0.7736 or 773.6 kg/m3 (48.29 lb/cu ft). Search Library Topics      Search Newspaper Columns. Apples may also cause your horse to choke. Weight loss 2. We've lived here for 10 years … Ovaries are superior, ovate, compressed, green, and crowned by a long slender style covered with white stigmatic hairs. But, during drought, when pasture grass is sparse, your horse might snack on the trees despite the taste. photo credit: WxMom. During the winter, the branches bear lateral buds that are depressed-globular, partly immersed in the bark, and pale chestnut brown in color. If your horse just won't leave the tree alone, I'd recommend removing it. Despite the name "Osage orange",[3] it is not related to the orange. Typically, horses would need to consume a cup of seeds to feel toxic effects (that's a lot of apples!). They are talking about the tiny bit of cyanide in the seeds (If the seeds are actually crunched and do not just pass through as designed to do by nature) Climbing Nightshade (European Bittersweet, Deadly Nightshade, Violet Bloom, Blue Nightshade, Soda Apple, Poisonous Nightshade, Felonwort, Devil's Apple, Scarlet Berry, Woody Nightshade, Blue Blindweed) ... Plants Non-Toxic to Horses. "Anachronistic fruits and the ghosts who haunt them." Yes, apples are a favorite (although messy) horse treat, however the seeds are toxic and equines should not be allowed unlimited access to apple trees. Nightshade Family (including Horse Nettle): The nightshade family (Solanum species) contains many toxic plants, including horse nettle, black nightshade, bittersweet nightshade, some species of groundcherry, and even tomatoes and potatoes. Cutting the apple in half makes it more effective. “Recently people have been throwing out the apples from their trees on the range for the wild horses,” horse volunteer Mary Cioffi said. [5] Due to its latex secretions and woody pulp, the fruit is typically not eaten by humans and rarely by foraging animals, giving it distinction as an anachronistic "ghost of evolution". However, apple peels make a great treat for horses with metabolic issues. In landscape situations bois d’arc generally should be removed to favor more desirable plants. Nuts – Oak acorns and Beechnuts (see right) can be toxic to horses. The thorny Osage orange tree was widely naturalized throughout the United States until this usage was superseded by the invention of barbwire in 1874. An apple is similar to feeding your horse straight sugar cubes (which some people do … [32] The sharp-thorned trees were also planted as cattle-deterring hedges before the introduction of barbed wire and afterward became an important source of fence posts. [10] The fruit has a cucumber-like flavor. The invention of barbed wire reportedly came from someone seeing the thorns on the bois d’ arc fencerows. [17], The genus Maclura is named in honor of William Maclure[9] (1763–1840), a Scottish-born American geologist. "[3], The Comanche also used this wood for their bows. Bois D’ Arc is native to Oklahoma, Louisiana, Missouri, and Texas and plentiful throughout the Red River Valley. Pistillate flowers are borne in a dense spherical many-flowered head which appears on a short stout peduncle from the axils of the current year's growth. In this case, an apple a day will not keep the vet away. [37][38][39], Osage orange wood is more rot-resistant than most, making good fence posts. For other uses, see, Ecological aspects of historical distribution. [17][22] An analysis of phylogeny based on chloroplast and nuclear genes indicates that a clade containing Maclura pomifera probably diverged from other Maclura clades during the Oligocene, coincident with divergence of mammoth/mastodon and sloth clades, suggesting these mammals may have been seed dispersers of Maclura pomifera. Peaches, apricots, cherry pits, almonds, even lima beans---they've all got 'em. The truth is that there is a lot more speculation about hedge apples than formal study, but it is generally believed that hedge apples, while unpleasant dining fare, are not poisonous to humans or livestock. "Hedge apple" trees (also called Osage orange, Maclura pomifera) are not related to apples or oranges and their fruit is inedible.The large, grapefruit-sized, brain-like green fruit are better-known that the trees and show up in the fall of the year in stores and farmers markets where they are sold for their purported ability to repel insects. They are the perfect size to become lodged in the equine esophagus. Other common plant names include hedge apple, bodark, bois d'arc, and bowwood.The Osage-orange is a small- to medium-sized tree. [10][28] A neglected hedge will become fruit-bearing. Best Answer Hedgeapples are not poisonous. Recumbence (lying down) 10. [6], The fruits are consumed by black-tailed deer in Texas and fox squirrels in the Midwest, who drop them to crack open. 2 (2018): 312-317. Those cuttings did not survive. [3] It was one of the primary trees used in President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's "Great Plains Shelterbelt" WPA project, which was launched in 1934 as an ambitious plan to modify weather and prevent soil erosion in the Great Plains states; by 1942 it resulted in the planting of 30,233 shelterbelts containing 220 million trees that stretched for 18,600 miles (29,900 km). 2 (2001): 14-21. Despite the name "Osage orange", it is not related to the orange. Oils found in peels may be irritating to the lips and corners of the mouth. [19], The largest known Osage orange tree is located at River Farm, in Alexandria, Virginia, and is believed to have been a gift from Thomas Jefferson. One study found elemol to be as effective a mosquito repellent as DEET. Branches contain a yellow pith, and are armed with stout, straight, axillary spines. Flowers are showy, umbrella-like clusters and appear in late summer. [14], The trees were named bois d'arc (or "bow-wood"),[3] by early French settlers who observed the wood being used for war clubs and bow-making by Native Americans. [10] Additionally, a yellow-orange dye can be extracted from the wood, which can be used as a substitute for fustic and aniline dyes. [11][3][12][13] By providing a barrier that was "horse-high, bull-strong, and pig-tight", Osage orange hedges provided the "crucial stop-gap measure for westward expansion until the introduction of barbed wire a few decades later". [10] Meriwether Lewis sent some slips and cuttings of the curiosity to President Jefferson in March 1804. Maclura pomifera, commonly known as the Osage orange, horse apple, hedge, or hedge apple tree is a small deciduous tree or large shrub, typically growing to 8 to 15 metres (30–50 ft) tall. Palmer and Fowler's Fieldbook of Natural History 2nd edition rates Osage orange wood as being at least twice as hard and strong as white oak (Quercus alba). Horses don’t alway stop when they should, especially when it comes to the fruit. [6] However, a 2015 study indicated that Osage orange seeds are not effectively spread by horses or elephant species. Muscle spasms 11. The mayapple plant tastes bitter and will immediately cause irritation. Bois 'd arc fruit (horse apples) However, the naturally occurring concentrations of these compounds in the fruit are too low to make the fruit an effective insect repellent. [3] John Bradbury, a Scottish botanist who had traveled the interior United States extensively in the early 19th century, reported that a bow made of Osage timber could be traded for a horse and a blanket. Severe depression 2. In such a situation, it is imperative that the intake of … [3] They are generally set up green because the dried wood is too hard to reliably accept the staples used to attach the fencing to the posts. At present, florists use the fruits of M. pomifera for decorative purposes. They feature a hairy, four-lobed calyx; the four stamens are inserted opposite the lobes of calyx, on the margin of a thin disk. It’s a good idea to chop them up, because an overly ambitious horse … TYPE:  Deciduous shade treeHEIGHT:  40 to 60 feetSPREAD:  40 feetFINAL SPACING:  Probably shouldn’t plant in most cases. Horses actually do eat the fruit, which has caused deaths due to lodging in the animal’s throat. Can also be grown from the fruit. I love apples and had an apple orchard twice during my life. [30] Primary components of fresh fruit include pectin (46%), resin (17%), fat (5%), and sugar (before hydrolysis, 5%). Each flower has a hairy four-lobed calyx with thick, concave lobes that invest the ovary and enclose the fruit. The use of the hedge apples for insect control is one of the most enduring pest management home remedies. Some historians believe that the high value this wood had to Native Americans throughout North America for the making of bows, along with its small natural range, contributed to the great wealth of the Spiroan Mississippian culture that controlled all the land in which these trees grew. [26] Large animals such as livestock, which typically would consume fruits and disperse seeds, mainly ignore the fruit. [3] The roots are thick, fleshy, and covered with bright orange bark. mlkarel2010 is offline Quote Quick Reply The ovule is solitary. The glycoside podophyllotoxin in contained in mayapple and is toxic to horses should they ingest all or a portion of the plant. The fruit or horse apples have been historically used to repel cockroaches and fleas. The leaf axils contain formidable spines which when mature are about 2.5 centimetres (1 in) long. Banana peels work, too. Hedge apples are not an important source of food for wildlife as most birds and animals find the fruit unpalatable. Branchlets are at first bright green and pubescent; during their first winter they become light brown tinged with orange, and later they become a paler orange brown. Horses can acquire a taste for them, and some eat the whole fruit, peel included. [25][41][42] In 2004, the EPA insisted that a website selling M. pomifera fruits online remove any mention of their supposed repellent properties as false advertising. The distinctive fruit, a multiple fruit, is roughly spherical, bumpy, 8 to 15 centimetres (3–6 in) in diameter, and turns bright yellow-green in the fall. Because horses are trickle feeders and graze for the majority of the time they are awake, on rare occasions they can eat something poisonous. If your horse has an active hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP), potassium is leaked into its blood stream from the muscles continuously. It does not need very much water although deep soils are much better than shallow rocky soils. Jaundice 5. [31] The moisture content of fresh fruits is about 80%. Each small drupe is oblong, compressed and rounded; they contain a milky latex which oozes when the fruit is damaged or cut. The leaves are 8 to 13 centimetres (3–5 in) long and 5 to 8 centimetres (2–3 in) wide, and are thick, firm, dark green, shining above, and paler green below when full grown. The fruit can be crushed and the seed after drying can be stratified by soaking in water for 30 days and then planted in the spring. In addition, apple seeds contain cyanide, a highly toxic chemical to most animals. Maclura pomifera, commonly known as the Osage orange, horse apple, hedge, or hedge apple tree is a small deciduous tree or large shrub, typically growing to 8 to 15 metres (30–50 ft) tall. [40], Compounds extracted from the fruit, when concentrated, may repel insects. However, Hedge apples have suffocated livestock by lodging in their esophagus. They turn yellow in the fall. The thorny trees do provide nesting and cover for wildlife. Toxic to Dogs, Toxic to Cats, Toxic to Horses. Bloody feces 7. I have received several reports that bois 'd arc fruit (horse apples) do in fact repel roaches and other pests. [3] Osage orange has been planted in all the 48 contiguous states of the United States and in southeastern Canada. Various studies have found elemol, an extract of Osage orange, to repel several species of mosquitoes, cockroaches, crickets, and ticks. According to Vine’s Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of the Southwest a bushel of fruit will yield approximately 24,500 seeds weighing about 2 pounds and if stored at 41 degrees, the seeds will retain viability for 3 years or more.INSIGHT:  The Native American Osage Indians used bois d’ arc to make bows hence the name, and also war clubs. Its dense grain structure makes for good tonal properties. They apparently love the taste. The distinctive fruit, a multiple fruit, is roughly spherical, bumpy, 8 to 15 centimetres (3–6 in) in diameter, and turns bright yellow-green in the fall. Arnoldia 61, no. Abdominal pain (colic) 5. [34], The heavy, close-grained yellow-orange wood is dense and prized for tool handles, treenails, fence posts, and other applications requiring a strong, dimensionally stable wood that withstands rot. "Heating With Wood: Species Characteristics and Volumes", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maclura_pomifera&oldid=1000055265, Trees of the Great Lakes region (North America), Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 09:36. Production of woodwind instruments and waterfowl game calls are common uses for the wood. They all contain a glycoalkaloid called solanine in the leaves, shoots, and unripe (green) berries. Anorexia 3. [36], The Comanche tribe historically used a water infusion of the roots for eye conditions. [23] An equine species that became extinct at the same time also has been suggested as the plant's original dispersal agent because modern horses and other livestock will sometimes eat the fruit. [10] A thornless male cultivar of the species exists and is vegetatively reproduced for ornamental use. [43], "Bois d'arc" redirects here. Barlow, Connie. Milky sap is bright green, bright green leaves with yellow fall color and large lime green wrinkled fruit 4 to 6 inches in diameter that form in the fall. The belief about the use of hedge apples for insect control is widespread and persistent. [4] It is a member of the mulberry family, Moraceae. Toxic Principles: Cyanogenic glycosides. It commonly grows 30 to 40 feet tall, occasionally as tall as 50 to 60 feet. BARK:  The bark is brown to orange – usually deeply furrowed with rounded ridges often interlacing.FOLIAGE:  The leaves are broad and pointed with yellow fall color forming rather dense shade below the tree.CULTURE:  Bois d’ arc is curious in that it grows very fast and easily, almost weed like, but it is sometimes hard to keep healthy and alive in landscaping. (Moraceae) and the Origin and Early Spread of “Hedge Apple” Folklore,", Murphy, Serena, Virginia Mitchell, Jessa Thurman, Charli N. Davis, Mattew D. Moran, Jessica Bonumwezi, Sophie Katz, Jennifer L. Penner, and Matthew D. Moran. Hedge apples are typically easy to find in stores or farmers' markets. Anemia 3. The twigs are … [7][8][9], The earliest account of the tree in the English language was given by William Dunbar, a Scottish explorer, in his narrative of a journey made in 1804 from St. Catherine's Landing on the Mississippi River to the Ouachita River. The compound fruit is a syncarp of numerous small drupes, in which the carpels (ovaries) have grown together. Leaves are arranged alternately in a slender growing shoot 90 to 120 centimetres (3–4 ft) long. The leaves of the Osage-orange are a shiny medium to dark green. It is a curious thing that the root system is so weak on a tree that has such iron like wood. The fruit is the large horse apple that looks a little bit like a lime green brain 4 to 6 inches in diameter. In addition most homeowners wouldn't mind entrepreneurs cleaning up their yards. Horses and other livestock will sometimes eat the fruit. It is definitely native to the Great Blackland Prairies of Texas. The American Midland Naturalist 180, no. "[15] The trees are also known as "bodark," "bodarc," or "bodock" trees, most likely originating as a transliteration or corruption of "bois d'arc. And they particularly don't like the fruit—the hedge apples. Crossbills are said to peck the seeds out. The yellow-green fruit are commonly call \"hedge apples.\" They are produced by the Osage-orange (Maclura pomifera). Apples are a popular and healthy fruit, and a big part of American culture and history. Even the trusty horse-safe stand-bys such as apples and carrots are too sugary. It must be regularly pruned to keep it in bounds, and the shoots of a single year will grow one to two metres (3–6 ft) long, making it suitable for coppicing. Bois d'Arc Maclura pomifera (ma-CLUE-ra pon-IF-er-ah) ​Moraceae (Mulberry Family)OTHER COMMON NAMES: OSAGE-ORANGE,  HORSE APPLE, BOW WOOD, HEDGE APPLE, BODARK, YELLOW WOOD, NARANJO CHINO. [29], Osajin and pomiferin are isoflavones present in the wood and fruit in an approximately 1:2 ratio by weight, and in turn comprise 4–6% of the weight of dry fruit and wood samples. Horse apples, also called hedge apples or Osage Oranges, are inedible. Apples aren't the only fruits with cyanogenic glycosides, either. The poison is a volatile alkaloid, coniine, found in the foliage all season and in the seeds in late summer. It's interesting that squirrels certainly aren't repelled by them. Convulsions 12. In 1810, Bradbury relates that he found two Maclura pomifera trees growing in the garden of Pierre Chouteau, one of the first settlers of Saint Louis, apparently the same person. In others, falling branches or uprooted trees injure nearby horses. [9][33] In 2001, its wood was used in the construction in Chestertown, Maryland of the schooner Sultana, a replica of HMS Sultana. In form they are simple, a long oval terminating in a slender point. [16] They liked the wood because it was strong, flexible and durable,[3] and the bush/tree was common along river bottoms of the Comanchería. The wood of M. pomifera is golden to bright yellow but fades to medium brown with ultraviolet light exposure. Low areas and can lead to liver damage to bright yellow but fades to medium brown with ultraviolet light.... 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