More about this Image A team of researchers at Arecibo captured video evidence from the ground of this lightning phenomenon known as blue jet. On October 16, 2019, pilot Chris Holmes captured a high-resolution video of a gigantic jet from 35,000 feet above the Gulf of Mexico near the Yucatán Peninsula. ELVES (Emission of Light and Very Low Frequency perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources) often appear as a dim, flattened, expanding glow around 400 km (250 mi) in diameter that lasts for, typically, just one millisecond. [27] They are about 200 meters wide, and have a maximum of 1 kilometer in height. On September 14, 2001, scientists at the Arecibo Observatory photographed a gigantic jet—double the height of those previously observed—reaching around 70 km (45 mi) into the atmosphere. Blue jets are cones of blue light brighter than sprites that spray upward from the tops of thunderclouds up to an altitude of about 25 miles (40 kilometers) at … Um bestimmt davon ausgehen zu können, dass die Auswirkung von Blue jet lightning tatsächlich nützlich ist, müssen Sie sich die Ergebnisse und Meinungen zufriedener Leute im Internet anschauen.Es gibt unglücklicherweise nur ziemlich wenige klinische Tests dazu, da diese ungemein kostspielig sind und üblicherweise nur Medikamente umfassen. Sprites have been witnessed thousands of times. The first video recording of a TLE was captured accidentally on July 6, 1989 when researcher R.C Franz left a camera running overnight to view the night sky. The acronym ELVES (“Emission of Light and Very Low Frequency perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources”) refers to a singular event which is commonly thought of as being plural. ", "UPWARD ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES FROM THUNDERSTORM TOPS", Homepage of the Eurosprite campaign, itself part of the CAL (Coupled Atmospheric Layers) research group, March 2, 1999, University of Houston: UH Physicists Pursue Lightning-Like Mysteries, Ground and Balloon-Borne Observations of Sprites and Jets, Sprites and ELVES : Lightning's strange cousins flicker faster than light itself, Sprites, jets and TLE pictures and articles, High speed video (10,000 frame/s) taken by Hans Stenbaek-Nielsen, University of Alaska, NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Gigantic Jets Over Oklahoma (August 29, 2007). Scientists do not yet know if this is a new phenomenon. Upper-atmospheric lightning is believed to be electrically induced forms of luminous plasma. Use your mouse to right-click (Mac users may need to Ctrl-click) the link above and choose the option that will save the file or target to your computer. C-sprites (short for “columniform sprites”) is the name given to vertical columns of red light. Because blue jets typically last almost a full second, one can easily see the jet rise from the clouds with a fast video camera. [22], On March 28, 2017, Photographer Jeff Miles captured four gigantic jets over Australia.[23]. The two main types of jets are blue jets and gigantic jets. Months after the accident, an investigation concluded that a "bolt of lightning" traveling upward from the clouds provoked the incident. Blue jets are beams of blue light propagating from the tops of active thunderclouds up to altitudes of ∼50 km. [30] No scientific journals exist on these phenomena yet due to their recent discovery, but they have been observed on footage. The positive end of the leader network fills the negative charge region before the negative end fills the positive charge region, and the positive leader subsequently exits the cloud and propagates upward. Retrieved from, "Juno Discovers Sprites and Elves on Jupiter", "Sprites and Elves in the Atmosphere | Penn State University". Upper-atmospheric lightning or ionospheric lightning are terms sometimes used by researchers to refer to a family of short-lived electrical-breakdown phenomena that occur well above the altitudes of normal lightning and storm clouds. [29] They were first observed in 2019 by professional storm chaser Pecos Hank. Beim Blue jet lightning Vergleich konnte unser Sieger in allen Kriterien das Feld für sich entscheiden. The two main types of jets are blue jets and gigantic jets. They resemble tall trees with quasi-vertical trunk and filamentary branches. A smaller variation of blue jets are This is the first image ever captured of blue jet lightning. Their color was a puzzle for some time, but is now believed to be a red hue. Blue starters are considered to be a weaker form of blue jets. These were taken in a series of 1994 aircraft flights to study sprites. Blue jet lightning - Wählen Sie dem Sieger der Tester. It was previously believed that blue jets were not directly related to lightning flashes, and that the presence of hail somehow led to their occurrence. Although jets are considered to be a type of upper-atmospheric lightning, it has been found that they are components of tropospheric lightning and a type of cloud-to-air discharge that initiates within a thunderstorm and travel upwards. They often occur in clusters, lying 50 kilometres (31 mi) to 90 kilometres (56 mi) above the Earth's surface. P1.39 The Discovery of Red Sprites as an Opportunity For Informal Science Education. Transient luminous events have also been observed in far-ultraviolet images of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, high above the altitude of lightning-producing water clouds.[1][2]. [27][28], Pixies were first observed during the STEPS program during the summer of 2000, a multi-organizational field program investigating the electrical characteristics over thunderstorms on the High Plains. [9] Sprites have been held responsible for otherwise unexplained accidents involving high altitude vehicular operations above thunderstorms.[10]. (690 KB) ELVES were first recorded on another shuttle mission, this time recorded off French Guiana on October 7, 1990. Gigantic jets reach higher altitudes than blue jets, and the upper portion of the jet changes color from blue to red. The electrical contact may represent an important component of the global electrical circuit, says Basu. These atmospheric discharges occur very high in the Earth 's atmosphere - much higher than the familiar form of lightning. They are not related to lightning.[27]. Blue jets: project directly from the top of the thunderstorm in a narrow cone jet up to approximately 50 km altitude. Other events, having essentially lower terminal altitudes (<26 km), are named blue starters. The top of the jet appears to look much more like a red sprite than a blue jet, with hot spots and a fuzzy diffused appearance. They are not connected to lightning strikes. C-sprites exhibiting tendrils are sometimes called “carrot sprites”. TLEs are secondary phenomena that occur in the upper atmosphere in association with underlying thunderstorm lightning. [12], Blue starters were discovered on video from a night time research flight around thunderstorms[13] and appear to be "an upward moving luminous phenomenon closely related to blue jets. They were first recorded on October 21, 1989, on a monochrome video of a thunderstorm on the horizon taken from the Space Shuttle as it passed over Australia. [24] From 35 miles, Holmes's video shows a blue streamer reach up from the top of a thunderstorm to the ionosphere, becoming red at the top. In contrast, other types of TLEs are not electrically connected with tropospheric lightning—despite being triggered by it. Examples may be seen in the clip 'Blue Jets & Blue Starters – the video', Phillips, T. (October 25, 2019). Upper-atmospheric lightning (includes Blue Jets) Aurora (astronomy) The jet was initially observed to be traveling up at around 50,000 m/s (110,000 mph; 180,000 km/h) at a speed similar to typical lightning, increased to 160,000 and 270,000 m/s (360,000–600,000 mph; 580,000–970,000 km/h), but then split in two and sped upward with speeds of at least 2,000,000 m/s (4,500,000 mph; 7,200,000 km/h) to the ionosphere where it then spread out in a bright burst of light. The attribution of the accident to a sprite was made retroactively, since this term was not coined until late 1993. Gnomes are small, brief spikes of light that point upward from a thunderstorm cloud's anvil top, caused as strong updrafts push moist air above the anvil. In a similar process to how blue jets form, the higher charge region is discharged by the leader network before the same occurs in the lower charge region, and one end of the leader network propagates upward from the cloud toward the ionosphere. Blue jets are believed to be initiated as "normal" lightning discharges between the upper positive charge region in a thundercloud and a negative "screening layer" present above this charge region. [20], On February 2, 2014, the Oro Verde Observatory of Argentina reported ten or more gigantic jet events observed over a thunderstorm in Entre Ríos south. They appear blue to the naked eye, can last for up to several hundreds of milliseconds and are cone-shaped. Lightning phenomena: sprites, elves and blue jets There are different types of lightning (or electrical discharges) that occur well above the realm of the thunderstorms that we experience in the troposphere (the lowest layer of earth’s atmosphere as it runs as high as about 17 km above earth’s surface). Blue starters are considered to be a weaker form of blue jets. The terms red sprites and blue jets gained popularity after a video clip was circulated following an aircraft research campaign to study sprites in 1994. They are similar to jets. The next known video recordings of a TLE were taken in 1989, when the Shuttle Mission STS-34 was conducting the Mesoscale Lightning Observation Experiment. Only then does a brilliant white lightning leader crawl slowly from the top of the cloud, reaching about 10% of the height of the gigantic jet before fading. Their apparent speeds are in the range of 10 s to 100 s km/s. Unsere Redakteure begrüßen Sie zu Hause auf unserem Testportal. They can also be preceded by a reddish halo, known as a sprite halo. The color is believed to be due to a set of blue and near-ultraviolet emission lines from neutral and ionized molecular nitrogen. [26] This refers to the process by which the light is generated; the excitation of nitrogen molecules due to electron collisions (the electrons possibly having been energized by the electromagnetic pulse caused by a discharge from an underlying thunderstorm). Sprites are large-scale electrical discharges which occur high above a thunderstorm cloud, or cumulonimbus, giving rise to a quite varied range of visual shapes. (Date of Image: Unknown), Credit: Victor Pasko, Penn State University. Huge Mystery Flashes Seen In Outer Atmosphere, http://webarchive.loc.gov/all/20020914103454/http://elf.gi.alaska.edu/, The Endless, Short film inspired by Sprite, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Upper-atmospheric_lightning&oldid=1001571655, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 08:06. [citation needed], On August 13, 2016, photographer Phebe Pan caught a clear wide-angle photo of a gigantic jet on a wide-angle lens while shooting Perseid meteors atop Shi Keng Kong peak in Guangdong province [21] and Li Hualong captured the same jet from a more distant location in Jiahe, Hunan, China. Sie ragen bis zu 25 km in die Höhe, bevor sie sich auflösen. In rund 40 km Höhe entstehen auf ähnliche Weise auch weiß-bläuliche, stichflammenähnliche Entladungen, „Blue Jets“ (dt. [4][5] In ensuing decades, high altitude electrical discharges were reported by aircraft pilots and discounted by meteorologists until the first direct visual evidence was documented in 1989. They are triggered by the discharges of positive lightning between the thundercloud and the ground. On July 22, 2002, five gigantic jets between 60 and 70 kilometres (35 and 45 mi) in length were observed over the South China Sea from Taiwan, reported in Nature. Wilson predicted that electrical breakdown should occur in the atmosphere high above large thunderstorms. They last for only a few microseconds. Their green glow has been hypothesized by its observers to come from excited oxygen atoms, much as how auroras appear green, however, this is unconfirmed. [18][19] The jets lasted under a second, with shapes likened by the researchers to giant trees and carrots. Several years later, the optical signatures of these events were named 'sprites' by researchers to avoid inadvertently implying physical properties that were, at the time, still unknown. Blue jets appear blue in color and go from the tops of clouds to a height of about 50 kilometers. Blue jets occur much less frequently than sprites. "[14] They appear to be shorter and brighter than blue jets, reaching altitudes of only up to 20 km. [31], Rare transient luminous events that occurs over tops of thunder storms, C. T. R. Wilson (1924) "The electric field of a thundercloud and some of its effects,", Earle R. Williams (November 2001) "Sprites, elves, and glow discharge tubes,". 57 DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5486-3", https://spaceweatherarchive.com/2019/10/25/close-encounter-with-a-gigantic-jet/, ELVES, a primer: Ionospheric Heating By the Electromagnetic Pulses from Lightning, "Red sprites and blue jets explained - New discovery! The global rate of TLE occurrence has been estimated from satellite (FORMOSAT-2) observations to be several million events per year. TROLLs, (Transient Red Optical Luminous Lineaments) occur after strong sprites, and appear as red spots with faint tails, and on higher-speed cameras, appear as a rapid series of events, starting as a red glow that forms after a sprite tendril, that later produces a red streak downward from itself. "Full report on the uncontrolled free fall of a stratospheric balloon payload provoked by a Sprite", Fractal Models of Blue Jets, Blue Starters Show Similarity, Differences to Red Sprites, "The Role of the Space Shuttle Videotapes in the Discovery of Sprites, Jets, and Elves", Fractal models of blue jets, blue starters show similarity, differences to red sprites, "Chinese Science Bulletin 2012, Vol. TLEs generally last anywhere from less than a millisecond to more than 2 seconds. By 2007, fewer than a hundred images had been obtained. Where blue jets are believed to initiate between the upper positive charge region and a negative screening layer directly above this region, gigantic jets appear to initiate between the upper positive and lower negative charge regions in the thundercloud. The event was recorded using a monochrome, low-light video system, but the researchers all agree that the phenomena was seen visually as blue in color. See also. Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere. [14] That ELVES was discovered in the Shuttle Video by the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE) team at Marshall Space Flight Center, AL led by the Principal Investigator, Otha H."Skeet" Vaughan, Jr. ELVES is a whimsical acronym for Emissions of Light and Very Low Frequency Perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources. According to Sunanda Basu, a program director in NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences (which funded the research), the video is the first ground-based evidence of a direct electrical discharge from a thundercloud top to the lower edge of the Earth's ionosphere. On November 10, 2012, the Chinese Science Bulletin reported a gigantic jet event observed over a thunderstorm in mainland China on August 12, 2010. TLEs have been captured by a variety of optical recording systems, with the total number of recent recorded events (early 2009) estimated at many tens-of-thousands. More about this Image Close encounter with a gigantic jet. Their color is unknown as they have only been observed in black-and-white footage. [6] The phenomena were named after the mischievous sprite, e.g., Shakespeare's Ariel or Puck,[7] and is also an acronym for Stratospheric/mesospheric Perturbations Resulting from Intense Thunderstorm Electrification. The preferred usage is transient luminous event (TLE), because the various types of electrical-discharge phenomena in the upper atmosphere lack several characteristics of the more familiar tropospheric lightning. Blue jets develop on the tops of cloud formations at altitudes of 12 to about 26 miles high. [11] They are also brighter than sprites and, as implied by their name, are blue in color. They were later dubbed 'pixies'. Also Available:Download the high-resolution JPG version of the image. [17] The jet was located above a thunderstorm over an ocean, and lasted under a second. In the 1920s, the Scottish physicist C.T.R. There are several types of TLEs, the most common being sprites. The majority of these images, which include the first color imagery, are associated with a single thunderstorm. Unlike sprites, blue jets are, as the name implies, blue in color. "GJ event that was clearly recorded in eastern China (storm center located at 35.6°N,119.8°E, near the Huanghai Sea)". 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