The history of Chennai dates back to the time of megalithic cultural establishment, according to the evidence found by the archaeological department. Learn how and when to remove this template message, the British victory in the Seven Years' War, "District profile - Chennai district administration- official website", The Madras Tercentenary commemoration volume, Volume 1939, http://www.chennaicorporation.com/madras_history.htm, http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/chennai-gets-unesco-recognition-for-music-117110801271_1.html, History of Fort St George and Black Town - Madras, Picasa Gallery - Historical Photos of Madras, 1921 Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Strike, 1932 Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Strike, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (India), Government Multi Super-speciality Hospital, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Chennai&oldid=998331481, Articles needing additional references from January 2009, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Narimedu (area to the west of Madraspatnam), This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 22:24. Both groups strived to grow their colonial populations and although their populations reached 10,000 people when the British arrived, they remained substantially outnumbered by the local Indian population. It was built in the Indo-Islamic style. The history of Chennai in Tamil , Chennai historic places Photos - http://www.ssivf.com/ssivf_cms.php?page=468 Population of Telugu's and Tamils were more or less the same in those days, however dynamics of Madras city was changed post independence rapidly. Most of these were recruited as cheap labor from the relatively poor Telugu nationality, which in turn enraged the Tamil nationals who were originally the working and middle class settlers of Madras in the late 18th century. But this time it was by the French under General La Bourdonnais, who used to be the Governor of Mauritius. They requested Day and the Damarla Venkatadri Nayakadu to wait until the sanction of the superior English Presidency of Bantam in Java could be obtained for their action. It is one of the twin hill stations along with Meghahatuburu. However, it is widely recorded that while the official center of the present settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras to a new large city which had grown up around the Fort including the "White Town" consisting principally of British settlers, and "Black Town" consisting of principally Catholic Europeans and allied Indian minorities. Part of the fortune that he amassed in Madras as part of the colonial administration became the financial foundation for Yale University. Under this Charter, the British and Protestant inhabitants were granted the rights of self-government and independence from company law. Shivaji stayed there for many years until he had captured his first fort. In 1788, Thomas Parry arrived in Madras as a free merchant and he set up one of the oldest mercantile companies in the city and one of the oldest in the country (EID Parry). Breaking with the tradition of the closed and almost wholly British controlled system of the English East India Company, The Madras Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1836 by Fredrick Adam, Governor of the Madras Presidency (the second oldest Chamber of Commerce in the country). Francis Day and his superior Andrew Cogan can be considered as the founders of Madras (now Chennai). Madras Tondaimandalam. The Original Name of Madras Is Puliyur kottam which is 2000 year old Tamil ancient name. Angry 13%. The calico cloth from the local area, which was in high demand, was of poor quality and not suitable for export to Europe. • Its older name Madras was officially changed to Chennai in 1996. On 22 August 1639, Francis Day secured the Grant by the Damarla Venkatadri Nayakadu, Nayaka of Wandiwash, giving over to the East India Company a three-mile-long strip of land, a fishing village called Madraspatnam, copies of which were endorsed by Andrew Cogan, the Chief of the Masulipatam Factory, and are even now preserved. It can be broadly divided into Ancient, Medieval and Modern Tamil Nadu. Dhanu is widely believed to have been an LTTE member. During the course of the late 17th century, both plague and genocidal warfare reduced the population of the colony dramatically. Collectively, the original Fort St. George settlement, "White Town", and "Black Town" were called Madras. The main difficulty, among the English those days, was a lack of money. However, from 1960s, the Central government started gearing up the use of Hindi in business and government. Chennai, originally known as Madras Patnam, was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Pennar river of Nellore and the Pennar river of Cuddalore. Although, Madraspatnam is named in later records following the establishment of Fort St. George, this is likely because of the discriminatory nature of the local caste system. Under Hindu caste code, as well as English Common Law, it is unlikely that Fort St. George was built upon the village of Madraspatnam and its inhabitants incorporated into the new town. Nonetheless, the Fort and its surrounding walls remained under British control who slowly rebuilt their colony with additional colonists despite another mass murder of Europeans in Black Town by anti-colonialists agitated by Golkonda and plague in the 1670s. Copyright © Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. All rights reserved including the right to reproduce the contents in whole or in part in any form or medium without the express written permission of Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. Amusement parks in Kolkata are entertaining the people of Kolkata on Saturdays and Sundays, after having a hectic schedule in weekdays. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city. Historically, Siddhar also refers to the people who were early age wandering adepts that dominated ancient Tamil teaching and philosophy. For … [50] Assistant Manager, Project Coordinator, Sales Representative and more! The Pallavas were defeated by the Cholas under Aditya I by about 879 and the region was brought under the Chola rule. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency and thus became home to important commercial organisations. Friends, Family, Historical Places 1 out of 10 best historical places places to visit in Chennai. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India`s fourth largest city. Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. Spencer's started as a small business in 1864 and went on to become the biggest department stores in Asia at the time. One of the top places to know the past of Old Madras, this is also a must-visit place for the history lovers in Chennai. Subsequent to Ilam Tiraiyan, the region was ruled by the Chola Prince Ilam Killi. ABOUT CHENNAI • Madras, acquired its name from Madraspattinam which is a fishing village situated to the north of Fort St. George. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the fifth most populous city in India. Currently, the nomenclature of the area is in a state of controversy. History. All three grants are said to have been engraved on gold plates which were later reported to have been plundered, disappearing during one of the genocides of the English colony. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency, also called Madras Province. Ancient Tamil Nadu contained three monarchical states, headed by kings called Ventar and several tribal chieftaincies, headed by the chiefs called by the general denomination Vel or Velir.During the third century BCE, the Deccan was part of the Mauryan kingdom, and from the middle of the first century BCE to second century CE the same area was ruled by the Satavahana dynasty. The face of the new-verse movement was a frail looking writer who spoke through his strong characters. Beri Thimmappa, Francis Day's dubash (interpreter), was a close friend of Damarla Ayyappa Nayakudu. During the reorganisation of states in India on linguistic lines, in 1953, Telugu speakers wanted Madras as the capital of Andhra Pradesh[10] and coined the slogan "Madras Manade" (Madras is ours). Chennai, Formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city.wikipedia. This area became the Fort St. George settlement. As the city is an important administrative and commercial centre, many others such as Bengalis, Punjabis, Gujaratis and Marwaris, as well as people from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar migrated to the city and have contributed to its cosmopolitan nature. ; 31 BCE: Latest estimated date of the birth of Valluvar. Their small fortified settlement quickly attracted other East Indian traders and as the Dutch position collapsed under hostile Indian power they also slowly joined the settlement. The crew of a merchant ship also destroyed by the Germans that night. Francis Day, one of the officers of the company, who was then a Member of the Masulipatam Council and the Chief of the Armagon Factory, made a voyage of exploration in 1637 down the coast as far as Pondicherry with a view to choosing a site for a new settlement. Instead, being the gateway of trade and the centre of the economy of the region, the English settlement and their fort of 1639–40, which was the basis for the presently named city of Chennai, was likely called Madras as well by the rest of India. The Vijayanagar rulers who controlled the area, appointed chieftains known as Nayaks who ruled over the different regions of the province almost independently. Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century CE by Tondaiman Ilam Tiraiyan, who was a representative of the Chola family at Kanchipuram. The city has changed its boundaries as well as the geographic limits of its quarters several times, principally as a result of raids by surrounding Hindu and Muslim powers. As stipulated by the Treaty signed with the Nayak, the British and other Christian Europeans were not allowed to decorate the outside of their buildings in any other color but white. They then strengthened and expanded Fort St George over the next thirty years to bear subsequent attacks, the strongest of which came from the French (1759, under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally), and later Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore in 1767 during the First Anglo-Mysore War. It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Film historian and writer Theodore Baskaran, who retired as the Chief Postmaster General of Tamil Nadu, explains how Chennai … 22 History Research jobs available in Chennai, Tamil Nadu on Indeed.co.in. Unakoti is an archaeological venue in Tripura. He was for the language of expression that breaks away from conventional norms. By 1646, the settlement had reached 19,000 persons and with the Portuguese and Dutch populations at their forts substantially more. In 1639, the local Indian rulers granted the East India Company a parcel of land upon which a fort was built as a residence for British settlers. It is a major manufacturing centre. As the East India Company controlled the trade in the area, these non-British merchants established agreements with the Company for settling on Company land near "White Town" per agreements with the Nayak. The region then passed into the hands of the Dutch, who established themselves near Pulicat just north of the city in 1612. Additionally, the pre-city area of Chennai has a long history within the records of South Indian Empires. Chennai, the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, not just offers a wide range of tourist spots but is also steeped in cultural history and ancient works of art. As more and more Indians arrived from the countryside to work in the city, the British and other Europeans found it increasingly difficult to establish or maintain independent wealth as they had during the early East Indian regime. The present-day city of Chennai started in 1644 as an English settlement known as Fort St. George. History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading center. Nonetheless, as any purview of the city's and other major metropolitan cemeteries of India can attest, hundreds of thousands came to India between the 1600s (decade) and 1770s and later another million more came between 1770 and 1870. By the end of 1783, the great 18th century wars which saw the British and French battle from Europe to North America and from the Mediterranean to India, resulted in the British being in complete control of the city's regional and most of South India area. More than 2000 years ago, its residents engaged with Chinese, Greek, Phoenician, Roman and Babylonian traders. R S Krishnasamy, better known by his pseudonym Vallikannan, whose centenary is this year, stood for freedom in contemporary Tamil literature. This place was supposedly named so by Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, Nayak of Vandavasi in remembrance of his father Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu. In fact, as the greater concentration of capital wrecked what remained of old East Indian middle class, the city principally became a large housing development for huge numbers of workers. Occupied by the British for 300 years, Chennai emerged as an energetic metropolis that’s fiercely proud of its Tamil heritage. The 2004 tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai killing many. 162 Related Articles [filter] Aditya I. He was the local governor for the last Raja of Chandragiri, Sri Ranga Raya VI of Vijayanagar Empire. Built in the early 19th century by the Wallajah family of the Carnatic rulers, it is till date a popular gathering place for the daily prayers and festive occasions like Muharram. Parry’s Corner - Chennai 600001. However, there are city records of their existence long afterward, and it has been suggested that the present government may still hold them. The Thousand Lights Mosque of Royapettah, Chennai is among the most esteemed mosques of the city as well as the state of Tamil Nadu. The demands for the immediate creation of a Telugu-speaking state were met with after Tirupati was included in Andhra State and after the leaders who led the movement were convinced to give up their claim on Madras. The development of a harbour in Madras led the city to become an important centre for trade between India and Europe in the 18th century. Following several outbreaks of violence by various Hindu and Muslim Indian communities against the Christian Europeans, White Town's defenses and its territorial charter was expanded to incorporate most of the area which had grown up around its walls thereby incorporating most of its Catholic European settlements. But there is some consensus that it is an abbreviation of Madraspatnam, the site chosen by the British East India Company for a permanent settlement in 1639.[15]. Since its establishment as a city in 1639, English was the official language of the city. mixed Anglo Indian descendants of the original English settlers, a smaller but still extant British and European community, as well as migrant Malayalee communities in the city. Chennai Chennai Metrowater officer held for taking bribe Chennai Tamil Nadu receives 5,36,500 doses of Covishield vaccine Chennai In Chennai cafes, January opens with retro menus. Another small town, Chennapatnam, lay to the south of it. On 20 August 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company along with Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu traveled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya and to obtain a grant for a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. What’s your reaction? India. Clear[x] 5 ★ Rediscover History at Alamparai Fort. Popular Articles. Great 53%. • 400 years old city. After India gained independence in 1947, Chennai became the capital of Madras State. Tamil Nadu, state of India, located in the extreme south of the country. Chennai has also become a major centre for outsourced IT and financial services from the Western world. The medieval period of the history of the Tamil country saw the rise and fall of many kingdoms, some of whom went on to the extent of empires, exerting influences both in India and overseas. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company. The DMK renamed Madras to Chennai as DMK founder Anna renamed Madras State as Tamil Nadu. The crisis also imperiled Parry & Co and Binny & Co, but both found rescuers. This new grant is important regarding the legal and civic development of the English settlement. காரணம் இங்கு… In 1746, Fort St George and Madras were captured at last. Thereafter in a nod to the declining fortunes of the British textile owners and skilled workers who were still extant in the city, the Madras Trades Association was established in 1856, by which the old colonial families still involved in the skilled and textile trades were granted entry into the British and Indian financial trade system. History of chennai Chennai and the nearby regions have contributed to the country as a great military, administrative and financial centre for centuries together. In the 17th century, the English East India Company decided to build a factory on the east coast and in 1626 selected its site as Armagon (Dugarazpatnam), a village some 35 miles north of Pulicat. The British fought with various European powers, notably the French at Vandavasi (Wandiwash) in 1760, where de Lally was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote, and the Danish at Tharangambadi (Tranquebar). The bank still has its corporate headquarters in the city. The capital is Chennai, in the northeastern portion of the state. Therefore, because of the fort's proximity or origin to the village of Mandraspatnam, and the fort's centrality to the development of the city, the British settlers of the city later named their settlement Madras in honour of it. The Pallavas held sway over this region from the beginning of the 3rd century to the closing years of the 9th century, except for the interval of some decades when the region was under the Kalabhras. History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. Thiruvotriyur is a historically important port city, now forms part of north Chennai. Shocked 7%. Bappaswami, who is considered as the ruler to rule from Kanchipuram, was himself a chieftain (of the tract around) at Kanchipuram under the Satavahana empire in the beginning of the 3rd century. Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. In 1906, the city experienced a financial crisis with the failure of its leading merchant bank, Arbuthnot & Co. When this was accomplished with the Independence of India in 1947, they were quickly brushed aside by the Indian population. • 36th metropolitan city all across the world. While most of the original city of Madras was built and settled by Europeans, the surrounding area which was later incorporated included the native temples of Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur, Thiruvallikeni (Triplicane), and Thirumayilai (Mylapore) which have existed for more than 2000 years. As a result, during the Governorship of Elihu Yale (1687–92), the large number of British and European settlers led to the most important political event which was the formation of the institution of a Mayor and the Corporation for the city of Madras. On this piece of wasteland was founded Fort St. George, a fortified settlement of British merchants, factory workers, and other colonial settlers. This together with the written records makes it clear that the Fort which became the centre of present Chennai, was built upon or nearby the village of Madraspatnam. The city of Madras, started out its journey towards becoming modern day Chennai - capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, manufacturing hub of the country and hence the ‘Detroit of India’ ; as a part of the famous Vijayanagara kingdom. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. They appointed chieftains to look after the Kanchipuram region. The app, India History, is in tamil language to read and improve our knowledge. In 1674, the expanded colony had nearly 50,000 mostly British and European colonists and was granted its own corporate charter, thereby officially establishing the modern day city. The English Factors at Masulipatam were satisfied with Francis Day's work. Chennai (Madras) History. Today, modern Chennai, formerly known as Madras is a large cultural, commercial and industrial centre, and is known for its cultural heritage and temple architecture. In 1969 Madras state was renamed as the state of Tamil Nadu. 36 History Part Time jobs available in Chennai, Tamil Nadu on Indeed.com. The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city. It represents the Tamil-speaking area of what was formerly the Madras Presidency of British India. [12] In 1953, the political and administrative dominance of Tamils, both at the Union and State levels ensured that Madras was not transferred to the new state of Andhra. During the function, Rahul said, “I have specially come here since Tamil culture, language and history is important for the future of India and it needs to be respected by everyone in India. Chennai History in Tamil 10.0 download - சென்னை நகரத்தில் வந்து குடி ஏறும் மக்களின் எண்ணிக்கை நாளுக்கு நாள் அதிகமாகிக் கொண்டே போகிறது. According to the new party history, instead of being named Madras, it was named Chennai, after a village called Chennapattanam, in honour of Damarla Chennapa Nayakudu, father of Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu, who controlled the entire coastal country from Pulicat in the north to the Portuguese settlement of Santhome.[4][5]. Before 17th century. Each time the town and later city was rebuilt and repopulated with new English and European settlers. History of Chennai, Tamil Nadu Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India`s fourth largest city. Chennai boasts of a long history from the English East India Company, through the British rule to its evolution in the late 20th century as a services and manufacturing hub for India. The grant signed between Damarla Venkatadri and the English had to be authenticated or confirmed by the Raja of Chandragiri - Venkatapathy Rayulu. Chennai, Tamil Nadu. 15 Votes Excited 7%. The Cholas who were very active during the Sangam age were entirely absent during the first few centuries. Subsequently, Firmans were issued by the Mughal Emperor granting the rights of the English East India company in Madras and formally ending the official capacity of local rulers to attack the British. In the latter part of the 17th century, Madras steadily progressed during the period of the East India Company and under many Governors. He was also an influential Nayak ruler under the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya then based in Chandragiri-Vellore Fort, was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city when the English East India Company arrived to establish a factory in the area.[2][3]. The region was often called by different names as madrapupatnam, madras kuppam, madraspatnam, and madirazpatnam as adopted by locals. The Chennai area has always attracted seafarers, spice traders and cloth merchants. Over time and administrative reforms, the area was finally fully incorporated into the new metropolitan charter of Madras. Despite lacking their original numbers and control, the original British community remnants, along with other minorities as well as the long history of British culture, keeps Madras a slightly cosmopolitan city. Further militating against the name "Chennai", Chennapatnam was the name in later years of an area explicitly detailed as having been incorporated of native villages, European plantations, and European merchant houses outside of the combined city of Madras consisting of Fort St. George, and White and Black Town. Chennai Tamil: சென்னை formerly known as Madras, is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world 8.9 (. 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