Field pea has improved handling characteristics at higher moisture levels. Proper fertilizer source, rate and placement are necessary to avoid reductions in plant stand while at the same time meeting the P needs of the field pea plant. In southern states, field pea is grown as a fall-sown cover and green manure crop. Determinate varieties will flower for a set period and ripen with earlier maturity of 80 to 90 days. These trials include the most promising varieties with information recorded on the important traits necessary for making proper variety selection. Spores also can be carried on the seed; therefore, planting disease-free seed is very important. Vine lifters enable producers to get under the pea vines and lift them over the cutting knife. Field pea is a legume crop and has the inherent ability to obtain much of its nitrogen requirement from the atmosphere by forming a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria in the soil. Like other crops, dry field pea yield can be estimated prior to harvest. Plants are most at risk when soil is saturated for a long period of time. Field surveys performed across North Dakota from 2008 to 2015 have indicated that Fusarium and Aphanomyces root rot are most commonly observed and cause the most damage to field pea. After dockage has been removed, the seeds are graded. At a minimum, we apply 100-150 pounds of MAP per acre. Minimize the number of times seed is handled. Estimating Pea Yield. Julie Pasche, NDSU Plant Pathologist; This allows it to be fed directly to livestock without having to go through the extrusion heating process. To get the pea yield in pounds per acre, the number of seeds per acre from the formula, mentioned above, can be divided by the number of approximate seeds per pound for the variety being evaluated. Markets are readily available with minimal quality restrictions for peas sold as livestock feed. Leaf lesions often are constrained by veins and frequently become translucent or shatter as they age. Varieties differ in their susceptibility to Aschochyta, but susceptibility ratings are generally unavailable and no commercial variety carries full resistance to Aschochyta or bacterial blight. 10,040 lb. Field pea has hypogeal emergence in which the cotyledons remain below the soil surface. The total amount of biomass produced depends upon the pea plant density, the timing of initiation of regrowth, soil moisture, rainfall and the date of a killing frost. The cylinder speed should be reduced as harvest seed moisture decreases. In addition, a study found that a delay in harvest affects postharvest breakage to a greater degree than seed moisture content. Reductions in grade may be the result of weevil damage, heat damage, bleached or shriveled seeds, and seeds with cracked seed coats. (212) 419-8286. For example, a Canadian trial indicated that two wild mustard plants per square foot reduced pea yield as much as 35 percent. Most growers will select among the semi leafless varieties that are more determinate in development. Read and follow all chemical labels. They are sold as a dry, shelled product and used for either human consumption or livestock food. The first criterion for selecting a variety should be market class. A six year average (2010-2015) of Agassiz field pea yield at the North Central Research Extension Center at Minot was 3,277 pounds, or 55 bushels per acre, compared with Faller hard red spring wheat at 4,241 pounds, or 71 bushels per acre. Historically, field pea primarily was grown in the Palouse region of Washington and Idaho. We use gypsum to get calcium and sulfur into our fertilizer mix. Gregory Endres, Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems, Shana Forster, NDSU North Central Research Extension Center Director; A hard copy is available from county Extension offices. Start with counting the total plants per 1/1000th acre to determine plant population. Average pea yields across the province came in at 42 bushels per acre, which compares with the 10-year average of 33 bushels per acre. Field pea differs from fresh or succulent pea, which is marketed as a fresh or canned vegetable. Nitrogen fixation will take place from about four weeks after emergence through seed formation. Factory crop yields vary from a conservative 1.5 tons to a good yield of over 5 tons of shelled peas per hectare. 24,000 lb. Average North Dakota Dry … In the 1990s, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana began producing dry pea. Fallow used 6.0 inches of water without producing any grain (Table 4). Lesions can develop on pods, which may result in the seed becoming infected. Federal grain standards have been established for whole and split field pea. Lygus bugs will migrate quickly into fields after alfalfa (preferred host) is cut for hay. Yield loss typically does not occur unless the infection occurs during early to midpod set. Field monitoring for Lygus bug is important during flowering and early pod development. A preferred crop rotation would have field pea planted with at least four cropping years between plantings. As the stimulated volunteer plants follow a main crop of field peas, high numbers of Rhizobium leguminosarum bacteria inoculum will be in the soil and nodulation is typically excellent. However, Rhizoctonia and Pythium also can cause root rot, seedling damping-off and reduced emergence. This is typically the first question that I am asked when discussing field pea production. Field peas, also referred to as southern peas or cowpeas, are grown on over 25 million acres throughout the world. Land Grant. The general yield formula is: plants per square foot x pods per plant x average seeds per pod x square feet per acre (43,560) = seeds per acre. Generally, semi leafless pea that has good standability will avoid any serious sclerotinia infections. Seedlings are tolerant of spring frosts in the low 20s, and if injured by frost, a new shoot will emerge from below the soil surface until approximately seven nodes are above the soil surface. Consult the NDSU Extension Service publication EB76, “Feeding Peas to Livestock,” for more information. The test weight of field pea is similar to that of wheat, so the amount of water per point of moisture that needs to be removed during drying is similar. To check for nodulation, carefully dig up a number of plants and gently clear the soil from the root mass. More aggressive approach by the crop exceed that which the soil or worked into the soil as green. At any stage of plant growth is also very important factor in variety selection often. 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