Isoroku Yamamoto - Yamamoto was thought to be the best war strategist and commander of the Japanese armed forces. For example, when Ishii received from Hirohito a communication saying the Army should drop the idea of stationing troops in China to counter the military operations of the Western powers, he wrote a reply for the Prime Minister for his audience with the Emperor. In addition, the Japanese fleet which attacked Pearl Harbor was under orders from Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto to be prepared to return to Japan on a moment's notice, should negotiations succeed. [24] This book of fifteen essays by senior generals argued that Japan had defeated Russia in the war of 1904–05 because bushidō had given the Japanese superior willpower as the Japanese did not fear death unlike the Russians who wanted to live, and what was needed to win the But as Commander Masatake Okumiya charged, “The Pacific War was started by … Anything I have achieved I owe to my capacity for hard work and never giving up". ", the answer that most gave was Hideki Tojo, reflecting a lingering sense of hurt in China about Japan's wartime aggression. A similar number had starved to death or died of diseases as the logistics to support an invasion of India were lacking, once the monsoons turned the roads of Burma into impassable mud. [25] Tojo attacked Britain, France and the United States for waging "ideological war" against Japan since 1919. Find out more about the greatest Japanese Leaders, including Shinzō Abe, Akihito, Satoru Iwata, Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu. [65] The Navy for its part demanded that Japan take New Caledonia, Fiji, and Samoa. [24] In his essay Tojo wrote "The modern war of national defense extends over a great many areas" requiring "a state that can monolithically control" all aspects of the nation in the political, social and economic spheres. When war broke out in Europe in September 1939, the Japanese, despite a series of victorious battles, had still not brought their war in China to an end: on the one hand, the Japanese strategists had made no plans to cope with the guerrilla … [18] Tojo wrote with bitterness at the time that American whites would never accept Asians as equals and "It [the Immigration Control Act] shows how the strong will always put their own interests first. The Japanese were counting on capturing food from the British to feed their army, assuming that all of India would rise up when the Japanese arrived and thereby cause the collapse of the Raj. As Education Minister, he continued militaristic and nationalist indoctrination in the national education system, and reaffirmed totalitarian policies in government. But it has been decided. World War II in the Pacific was a fight to seize and defend airfields. "[96] Tojo was more of a follower than a leader, and he represented mainstream opinion in the Army, and so his removal from office would not mean the end of the political ambitions of an Army still fanatically committed to victory or death. [8] Japanese schools in the Meiji era were very competitive, and there was no tradition of sympathy for failure; those who did so were often bullied by the teachers. The Empire of Japan entered World War II in September 27, 1940, by signing the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy, though, it wasn't until the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, that the US entered the conflict. Tojo, in particular, should be made to bear all responsibility at this trial. [97] Once it was clear that Tojo no longer had the support of the Chrysanthemum Throne, Tojo's enemies had little trouble bringing down his government. "[99], After recovering from his injuries, Tojo was moved to Sugamo Prison. The emperor-based ideology of Japan during World War II was a relatively new creation, dating from the efforts of Meiji oligarchs to unite the nation in response to the Western challenge. [28] The Control faction, while being willing to use assassination to achieve its goals, was more willing to work within the system to achieve reforms; wanted to create the "national defense state" to mobilize the entire nation before going to war; and, while not rejecting the idea of "spirit" as a war-winning factor also saw military modernization as a war-winning factor; and saw the United States as a future enemy just as much as the Soviet Union.[28]. [41] On September 6, a deadline of early October was fixed in the Imperial Conference for resolving the situation diplomatically. Japan: Hideki Tojo - As Prime Minister of Japan, Hideki Tojo was a major supporter of the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy. [91] The Emperor himself was furious about the defeat at Saipan; had called a meeting of the Board of Field Marshals and Fleet Admirals to consider whether it might be possible to recapture Saipan (it was not); and Prince Takamatsu wrote in his diary "he flares up frequently". Tojo's commemorating tomb is located in a shrine in Hazu, Aichi (now Nishio, Aichi), and he is one of those enshrined at the controversial Yasukuni Shrine. So I will fight the best I can. Though the German leadership of the crazed evil man Adolph Hitler’sfailed leadership lost ww2 the Generals did not.excuse I’m not a expert on ww2 history,but Could have Japan had possibly better leadership from its leaders? One cannot recite arguments to the Emperor. [75] China was by far the largest theater of operations for Japan, and with the Americans steadily advancing in the Pacific, Tojo was anxious to end the quagmire of the "China affair" to redeploy Japanese forces. [71] At the same time, Tojo, as the Army Minister, became involved in a clash with the Army chief of staff over whether to continue the battle of Guadalcanal or not. [80] The roads necessary to properly supply the 150,000 Japanese soldiers committed to invading India would turn into mud when the monsoons arrived, giving the Japanese a very short period of time to break through. General Hideki Tojo rose in the ranks of the Japanese military and government until he consolidated power. [70] The American historian Herbert Bix wrote that Tojo was a "dictator" only in the narrow sense that from September 1942 on, he was generally able to impose his will on the Cabinet without seeking a consensus, but at same time noted that Tojo's authority was based upon the support of the Emperor, who held ultimate power. [98] As American soldiers surrounded Tojo's house on September 11, he shot himself in the chest with a pistol, but missed his heart. By Richard Stockton. Tojo then replied to Ishii: "If the Emperor said it should be so, then that's it for me. [91] Tojo had been so demonized in the United States during the war that, for the American people, Tojo was the face of Japanese militarism, and it was inconceivable that the United States would make peace with a government headed by Tojo. [27] In September 1935, Tojo assumed top command of the Kenpeitai of the Kwantung Army in Manchuria. [61] The Japanese historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi noted this document proves that Tojo was aware of and approved of the "comfort women" corps. [35] From December 1938 to 1940, Tojo was Inspector-General of Army Aviation. [62] Some of the American planes were shot down and their pilots taken prisoner. Japan was able to expand her control over a large territory that expanded to the border of India in the West and New Guinea in the South within the following six months. [97], As Tojo's replacement, the jushin advised the Emperor to appoint a former Prime Minister, Admiral Mitsumasa Yonai, as he was popular among the Navy, the diplomatic corps, the bureaucracy and the "peace faction". [78], In the Battle of Saipan, about 70,000 Japanese soldiers, sailors, and civilians were killed in June–July 1944 and in the Battle of the Philippine Sea the Imperial Navy suffered a crushing defeat. As the commander of the Kenpeitai, Tojo ordered the arrest of all officers in the Kwantung Army suspected of supporting the coup attempt in Tokyo. [8] In 1899, Tojo enrolled in the Army Cadet School. 23 December 1933. The American-led prosecution immediately arranged that he be secretly coached to recant this testimony. Hideki Tojo was born on December 30, 1884 to a relatively low-ranking samurai family in the Kōjimachi district of Tokyo. [13] Tojo served as Japanese military attache to Germany between 1919 and 1922. Tojo sacked the Operations office and his deputy at the general staff, who were opposed to withdrawing, and ordered the abandonment of the island. [32] As chief of staff, Tojo was responsible for the military operations designed to increase Japanese penetration into the Inner Mongolia border regions with Manchukuo. [1], Hideki Tojo was born in the Kōjimachi district of Tokyo on December 30, 1884,[2] as the third son of Hidenori Tojo, a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army. [16], Tojo boasted that his only hobby was his work, and he customarily brought home his paperwork to work late into the night, and he refused to have any part in raising his children, which he viewed both as a distraction from his work and a woman's work, having his wife do all the work of taking care of his children. [74] To strengthen his position in face of criticism of the way the war was going, on February 21, 1944, Tojo assumed the post of Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, arguing he needed to take personal charge of the Army. On the eve of the Asia-Pacific conflict, Tojo was an outspoken advocate for preemptively attacking the United States and its European allies. As matters stand now we can merely keep silent and without the least effort war will begin. He said that any compromise solution would only encourage them to make more extreme demands on Japan, in which case Japan might be better to choose war to uphold national honor. The turning point in the Pacific War was the battle of Midway in June 1942. [citation needed] After negotiations with Vichy France, Japan was given permission to place its troops in the southern part of French Indochina in July 1941. [93] The establishment of American bases in the Marianas meant the cities of Japan were within the range of B-29 Superfortress bombers and the British historian H. P. Willmott noted that "even the most hard-headed of the Japanese militarists could dimly perceive that Japan would be at the end of her tether in that case". Tojo's second son, Teruo Tojo, who designed fighter and passenger aircraft during and after the war, eventually served as an executive at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. [42], The prevailing opinion within the Japanese Army at that time was that continued negotiations could be dangerous. He began to take an interest in militarist politics during his command of the 8th Infantry Regiment. [36], On June 1, 1940, Emperor Hirohito appointed Kōichi Kido, a leading "reform bureaucrat" as the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, making him into the Emperor's leading political advisor and fixer. [18] Like almost all Japanese officers at the time, Tojo routinely slapped the faces of the men under his command when giving orders, saying that face-slapping was a "means of training" men who came from families that were not part of the samurai caste, and for whom bushido was not second nature. In the early years of the war, Tojo had popular support as Japanese forces moved from one victory to another. [70] Tojo went to see the Emperor, who backed the Prime Minister's plans for the Greater East Asia Ministry, and on September 1, 1942 Tojo told the cabinet he was establishing the Greater East Asia Ministry and could not care less about how the Gaimusho felt about the issue, leading Tōgō to resign in protest. In 1922, on his way home to Japan, Tojo took a train ride across the United States, his first and only visit to America, which left him with the impression that the Americans were a materialistic "soft" people devoted only to making money and to hedonistic pursuits like sex, partying and (despite Prohibition) drinking. [69], However, after the Battle of Midway, with the tide of war turning against Japan, Tojo faced increasing opposition within the government and military. [100] The dentist ground away the message three months later.[101]. See more ideas about Japan, Ww2, World war two. [14] As the Imperial Japanese Army had been trained by a German military mission in the 19th century, the Japanese Army was always very strongly influenced by intellectual developments in the German Army, and Tojo was no exception. [57] The claim that the Americans had demanded in the "Hull note" Japanese withdrawal from all of China, instead of just the parts occupied since 1937 and together with the claim the note was an ultimatum was used as one of the principal excuses for choosing war with the United States. [47] After being informed of his appointment, Tojo was given one order from the Emperor: to make a policy review of what had been sanctioned by the Imperial Conferences. It consisted of the Army and Navy ministers; the Army and Navy chiefs of staff; and chiefs of the military affairs bureaus in both services. I am very sorry for the nation and all the races of the Greater Asiatic powers. [8] Tojo liked to say: "I am just an ordinary man possessing no shining talents. [63] Under such demands, Japan would assume control of the following territories: Additionally, Tojo wanted all of China to be under the rule of the puppet Wang Jingwei, planned to buy Macau and East Timor from Portugal and to create new puppet kingdoms in Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and Malaya. [19], In 1924, Tojo was greatly offended by the Immigration Control Act passed by the American Congress banning all Asian immigration into the United States with many Congressmen and Senators openly saying the act was necessary because the Asians worked harder than whites. [74] By serving as Prime Minister, Army Minister and Army Chief of Staff, Tojo took on nearly all of the responsibility; if plans for victory in 1944 failed, he would have no scapegoat. inevitable next war (against precisely whom the book did not say) was to repeat the example of the Russian-Japanese war on a much greater scale by creating the "national defense state" that would mobilize the entire nation for war. [97] At a conference with the Emperor, Koiso and Yonai were told by the Emperor to co-operate in forming a new government, but left in the dark about who was to become Prime Minister. On December 7, 1941, the United States entered World War II when Japan attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor. [6] The purpose of the Meiji educational system was to train the boys to be soldiers as adults, and the message was relentlessly drilled into Japanese students that war was the most beautiful thing in the entire world, that the Emperor was a living god and that the greatest honor for a Japanese man was to die for the Emperor. [3] Under the bakufu, Japanese society was divided rigidly into four castes; the merchants, artisans, peasants and the samurai. [46], At the time, Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni was said to be the only person who could control the Army and the Navy and was recommended by Konoe and Tojo as Konoe's replacement. Ryūkichi Tanaka, a former general who testified at the trial and had close connections with chief prosecutor Joseph B. Keenan, was used as an intermediary to persuade Tojo to revise his testimony.[119]. In the Southwest Pacific, the Japanese forces in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands would stay on the defensive and try to slow down the American, Australian, and New Zealand forces for long as possible. [110][1], Tojo was sentenced to death on November 12, 1948, and executed by hanging 41 days later on December 23, 1948, a week before his 64th birthday. In short, the Emperor had absorbed the views of the army and navy high commands. Akihito. Tojo had powerful support, and by Japanese standards, he was not extreme. [56] The eventual plan drawn up by Army and Navy Chiefs of Staff envisaged such a mauling of the Western powers that Japanese defense perimeter lines—operating on interior lines of communications and inflicting heavy Western casualties—could not be breached. Hideki Tojo (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) who served as Prime Minister of Japan and President of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association for most of World War II. [91] Prince Konoe and Admiral Okada had long been plotting to bring down the Tojo government since the spring of 1943, and their principal problem had been the support of the Emperor, who did not wish to lose his favorite Prime Minister. A number of his descendants survived, including his granddaughter, Yūko Tojo, who was a political hopeful who claimed Japan's war was one of self-defense and that it was unfair that her grandfather was judged a Class-A war criminal. On October 16, Konoe, politically isolated and convinced that the Emperor no longer trusted him, resigned. [88] Despite the Japanese Pan-Asian rhetoric and claim to be liberating India, the Indian people did not revolt and the Indian soldiers of the 14th Army stayed loyal to their British officers, and the invasion of India ended in complete disaster. Politically, he was nationalist, and militarist, and was nicknamed "Razor" (カミソリ, Kamisori), for his reputation of having a sharp and legalistic mind capable of quick decision-making. [92] With Saipan in American hands, the Americans could take other islands in the Marianas to build airbases. But the next day, he would tell me: "You were worried about it yesterday, but you do not have to worry so much." This time, if hostilities erupt, I have to issue a declaration of war. [40] Konoe wanted to make Japan the dominant power in East Asia, but he also believed it was possible to negotiate a modus vivendi with the United States under which the Americans would agree to recognize the "Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere".[40]. [26] Tojo ended his essay stating that Japan must stand tall "and spread its own moral principles to the world" as the "cultural and ideological war of the 'imperial way' is about to begin". [37] Kido's appointment also favored the rise of his allies in the Control faction. [64] As the Burmese had proved to be enthusiastic collaborators in the "New Order in Asia", the new Burmese kingdom would be allowed to annex much of north-east India as a reward. [84] This breach of the "absolute defense line", five months after its creation, led Tojo to fire Admiral Osami Nagano as the Navy Chief of Staff, for incompetence. Meanwhile Tokyo will be burnt to the ground three times. [28] Both the Tōseiha and the Kōdōha factions were militaristic groups that favored a policy of expansionism abroad and dictatorship under the Emperor at home, but differed over the best way of achieving these goals. Famous Japanese Leaders. The Japanese made gaining and maintaining control of the air as much a requirement in their basic war strategy as they did the destruction of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. Before Pearl Harbor, the Japanese had already begun imperial expansion in China (1937) and in other territories and islands. Leading up to the War Japan wanted to become a strong country and a world leader. Commander of the Combined Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was weary, saying on 14 October 1940: "To fight the United States is like fighting the whole world. But as we go into 1942, the United States has just entered into World War II. As the Army Minister, he continued to expand the war with China. Japans greed for more land was due to discord and economic recession in the 1920s, so Hirohito yearned for more natural resources. Thus, gradually, he began to lean toward war. Following the purge, Tōseiha and Kōdōha elements were unified in their nationalist but highly anti-political stance under the banner of the Tōseiha military clique, which included Tojo as one of its leaders. Created by: Mariah Farris, Nicholas Meddin and Shelby Ziccardi, DaVinci Charter Academy. [97] Two days after Tojo resigned, the Emperor gave him an imperial rescript offering him unusually lavish praise for his "meritorious services and hard work" and declaring "Hereafter we expect you to live up to our trust and make even greater contributions to military affairs".[95]. Published November 2, 2017. On November 2, Tojo and Chiefs of Staff Hajime Sugiyama and Osami Nagano reported to Hirohito that the review had been in vain. "[117][118], The sustained intensity of this campaign to protect the Emperor was revealed when, in testifying before the tribunal on December 31, 1947, Tojo momentarily strayed from the agreed-upon line concerning imperial innocence and referred to the Emperor's ultimate authority. I wished to commit suicide but sometimes that fails. In July 1937, he personally led the units of the 1st Independent Mixed Brigade in Operation Chahar, his only real combat experience. [76] On January 9, 1944, Japan signed a treaty with the puppet Wang regime under which Japan gave up its extraterritorial rights in China as part of a bid to win Chinese public opinion over to a pro-Japanese viewpoint, but as the treaty changed nothing in practice, the gambit failed. [81][82] The Japanese brought along with them enough food to last for only 20 days; after that, they would have to capture food from the British to avoid starving. Tojo was tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for war crimes and found guilty of, among other actions,[102] waging wars of aggression; war in violation of international law; unprovoked or aggressive war against various nations; and ordering, authorizing, and permitting inhumane treatment of prisoners of war. [91] Willmott noted that an additional problem for the "peace faction" was that: "Tojo was an embodiment of mainstream opinion within the nation, the armed services and particularly the Army. By July 1940, he was appointed Minister of War to the Japanese government led by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe. Japan entered World War 2 under the divine command of emperor Hirohito. Upon being named Prime Minister in October 1941, he oversaw the Japanese Empire's decision to go to war and its ensuing conquest of much of Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. Reflecting the imagery often used in Japan to describe people in power, Tojo told his officers that they were to be both a "father" and a "mother" to the men under their command. [15] In the 1920s, the German military favored preparing for the next war by creating a totalitarian Wehrstaat (Defense State), an idea that was taken up by the Japanese military as the "national defense state". [62] The Army General Staff led by Field Marshal Hajime Sugiyama insisted on executing the eight American fliers, but were opposed by Tojo, who feared that the Americans would retaliate against Japanese POWs if the Doolittle fliers were executed. Hideki Tojo accepted full responsibility for his actions during the war, and made this speech: It is natural that I should bear entire responsibility for the war in general, and, needless to say, I am prepared to do so. [73] In November 1943, the American public's reaction to the Battle of Tarawa led Tojo to view Tarawa as a sort of Japanese victory, believing that more battles like Tarawa would break American morale, and force the U.S. to sue for peace. [120], In the Japanese 1998 film Pride, Tojo was portrayed as a national hero, forced against his will by the Hull note into attacking America and executed after a rigged trial, a picture of Tojo that is widely accepted in Japan while giving offense abroad, especially China.[121]. According to Colonel Akiho Ishii, a member of the Army General Staff, the newly appointed Prime Minister showed a true sense of loyalty to the emperor performing this duty. The Emperor then gave his consent to war. [97] Finally Lord Privy Seal Kido resolved the muddle by saying Koiso was the Prime Minister. [21] Like many other Japanese officers, Tojo disliked Western cultural influence in Japan, which was often disparaged as resulting in the ero-guro-nansensu ("eroticism, grotesquerie and nonsense") movement as he complained about such forms of "Western decadence" like young couples holding hands and kissing in public, which were undermining traditional values necessary to uphold the kokutai. In August–September 1942, a major crisis gripped the Tojo cabinet when the Foreign Minister Shigenori Tōgō objected quite violently on August 29, 1942 to the Prime Minister's plan to establish a Greater East Asia Ministry to handle relations with the puppet regimes in Asia as an insult to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (the Gaimusho) and threatened to resign in protest. Tojo was a member of the Tōseiha ("Control") faction in the Army that was opposed by the more radical Kōdōha ("Imperial Way") faction. You might remember - December 1941, Japan goes on a major offensive, tries to knock out the U.S. Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor, attacks Wake Island, attacks Guam, attacks Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, Malaya. [83] Bose had impressed Tojo at their meetings as the best man to inspire an anti-British revolution in India.[80]. [84] When Field Marshal Sugiyama complained to the Emperor about being fired and having the Prime Minister run the General Staff, the Emperor told him he supported Tojo. [citation needed] Two days later, on November 5, Hirohito approved the operations plan for a war against the West and continued to hold meetings with the military and Tojo until the end of the month. [5] Tojo's father was a samurai turned Army officer and his mother was the daughter of a Buddhist priest, making his family very respectable, but poor.[4]. Over the course of seven hours … I wait for the righteous judgment of history. 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